All Glossary Terms
An evaluation system that has employees not only rated by supervisors, but also by peers, direct reports, and sometimes clients and customers.
Employer-sponsored investment program to set aside tax-deferred money for retirement.
A type of qualified retirement plan authorized by Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code.
This can be an alien number, file number, green card number, or case number (especially in immigration court). Refers to the file number assigned in sequence by the USCIS to an alien who has applied for adjustment or has been apprehended by the USCIS. This is the permanent file number of the alien and will eventually appear on the work permit, green card, and naturalization certificate. This number must appear on all correspondence and applications filed with the USCIS.
See American Law Reports.
AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Peo
An organization that advocates on behalf of persons age 50 and older.
An application that is removed from the PTO docket of pending applications either (a) through formal abandonment by the applicant, attorney or agent of record, (b) through failure of applicant to take appropriate action at some state in the prosecution of the application, or (c) for failure to pay the issue fee, or (d) in the case of a provisional application, automatically after twelve months after the filing date of the provisional application.
Personal property of the tenant left behind after the tenant vacates the dwelling.
Lowering of real property tax because the owner filed an appeal.
Situation when a mortgage is sold for more than its face value.
abstract of title
Legal history of ownership of real property used when doing a title search.
The termination of an at-will employee for engaging in protected activity or for refusing to commit an illegal act, sometimes called wrongful discharge.
Part of the mortgage contract that allows the lender to legally demand that the entire mortgage be paid in full because the borrower has failed to make a mortgage payment(s).
Person who guarantees a loan for another by signing a promissory note, bill, or other negotiable instrument.
A record of a business transaction.
The difference between the debit and the credit sides of an account.
System of gathering financial information and keeping a record of business transactions to prepare statements concerning assets, liabilities and operating results.
System for a business to keep financial information and report it to the proper taxing body.
Amount owed to creditors for goods and services.
Amount due from customers for merchandise or services.
Sophisticated individuals with high net worth or high income, large trusts or investment companies, or persons involved in the business.
Method of recording expenses incurred and income due in the periods to which they relate rather than actual flow of cash.
Method of keeping accounts that shows expenses incurred and income earned for a given period of time, even if these expenses or income have not actually been paid or received in that period.
Interest earned for a specific period of time.
acknowledgement of paternity/parentage
A written form signed by the named father of a child born outside of marriage that he is the true father of the child.
A statement, written or oral, made before a person authorized by law to administer oaths (such as a notary public).
A unit of measure for land, 43,560 square feet. The land hat a home sits on is usually expressed in terms of acre (half acre, quarter-acre, number of acres).
A lawsuit, including a divorce.
activities of daily living (ADL)
Benchmarks used to measure a person's ability to care for oneself, such as dressing, bathing, grooming, and cooking.
actual cash value
The price a willing buyer would pay to a willing seller for an item of property. The term applies to the loss valuation portions of property policies.
Money lost by the plaintiff due to the wrongful acts of the defendant. This differs from other types of damages such as punitive or liquidated.
An employee of an insurer who performs mathematical and statistical analyses for the purposes of setting rates and for reserves other than loss reserves, such as reserves for incurred but not reported losses
A concept in criminal law that involves the criminal act itself.
ad hoc committee
Special committee appointed to carry out a specific nonrecurring task and disbanded when that task is completed.
A document attached to another document to add some new terms.
Person or entity added to an insurance policy as an insured such as a mortgagee, lessor, or subcontractor.
additional living expense
A homeowners policy property coverage. In the event of a covered loss to the dwelling, the insured generally is covered for the costs of temporary alternate quarters/lodging, among other things, while repairs or reconstruction is ongoing.
additional principal payments
Payments that are higher than the required amount. The extra money reduces the principal balance.
ADIT (Alien Documentation, Identification and Tele
The process where an adjustment applicant places his or her signature and fingerprint on the I-89 card, which will be sent to a service center to be made into a green card. It is usually done at the USCIS interview.
This occurs when a USCIS officer makes a decision as to whether to grant or deny an application.
adjustable rate mortgage (ARM)
Type of mortgage that has a variable interest rate based on a certain percentage or financial interest.
Original cost of a property, plus the value of improvements to the property, minus any depreciation taken.
adjustment of status (AOS)
Process where one becomes a permanent resident in the U.S. Since one has a previous status in the U.S., they are said to be changing their status to permanent residence.
The time between possible changes to the rate of interest for an adjustable rate mortgage.
An appeal filed at the local USCIS to the Administrative Appeals Unit in Washington within thirty days of a petition's denial.
A case that is not denied but is no longer pending.
Rules and regulations enacted by local, state or federal administrative agencies.
A personal representative who is not named in the decedent's will. In earlier times, a female administrator was called an administratrix. See also executor and personal representative.
This occurs when an alien presents himself or herself for inspection to an immigration officer at a border or airport and whose entry was approved on a particular basis.
An insurer admitted to transact business within a particular state. If an insurer is not admitted in a particular state, yet does business within that state, it does so as a nonadmitted, or excess and surplus lines insurer. Policies issued by nonadmitted insurers in a particular state are not protected by that state's insurance guaranty fund in the event of insurer insolvency.
Person being adopted.
A process whereby a child becomes part of another's family through legal means.
adoption assistance agreement
A contract between adoptive parents and state agency that placed the child, describing the monthly payments the state will make to the parents to help with the expense of raising a child.
In most states, a person eighteen years of age or older.
Adoption by one adult of another adult.
adult day care
Daily care provided by a facility to nonresident adults, usually for the purpose of allowing the primary caregivers to go to work.
adult protective services
State agency that investigates elder abuse.
A pre-payment of royalties.
(1) A general term used to describe any legally recognized written document or oral statement in which a person gives instructions concerning his or her health care. It includes a health care power of attorney, a living will, or an anatomical gift. (2) The title given to a health care power of attorney or living will in some states.
advance medical directive
A type of document instructing health-care personnel as to the wishes of the maker of the document regarding health-care decisions, to be used in the event the maker of the document becomes terminally ill or incapacitated and is unable to communicate his or her wishes.
Issued by either a local office or a service center, depending on where the adjustment application is, it is advance permission to return to the U.S. to resume processing of an adjustment application.
Supplemental pamphlets which add new case opinions to reporters.
adverse interest test
Method in which a court can consider a parent's sexual orientation in a custody case.
Right by which someone occupying a piece of land acquires title against the real owner, if that possession has been actual, continuous, hostile, visible, and distinct for a certain time as stated by law.
A form sent to you in response to your reply to a final office action from the PTO. This action will advise you of the disposition of your reply and why your application is still not in condition for allowance.
The legal term for the person who signs an affidavit.
Sworn statement in writing, usually notarized.
affidavit of support
Important form required in a family-based adjustment case in which the petitioner agrees to reimburse the government if the person being adjusted requires federal benefits within ten years of adjustment or the person naturalizes.
Action required of most government contractors and subcontractors to assure equal employment of minorities, women, persons with disabilities, and certain veterans.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
The ADEA prohibits discrimination because of age against persons forty or more years old.
age of majority
The age at which a child becomes an adult under state law. Each state may have slightly different ages for different purposes.
(1) Legal principal supporting liability against one party for actions taken by another. For example, the actions of an employee may support liability against his or her employer under the principals of agency. (2) Federal or governmental organization.
An adoption in which an agency connects the birth mother and intended parents and handles the mechanics and paperwork.
A type of union security arrangement where union membership is optional. However, as a condition of continued employment, nonunion members pay to the union amounts equal to initiation fees and periodic dues paid by union members.
Sequence in which issues are to be taken up in a meeting.
A person who is given authority to act on behalf of another person or other legal entity.
In the immigration sense, this means any type of crime listed in Section 101(a)(43) of the INA, which includes many non-violent crimes and misdemeanors.
agreement for a term
A written lease that specifically states the length of the tenancy.
agreement for deed
A legal instrument that two parties agree to the purchase and sale of a piece of property for a series of payments. Also known as a contract for deed.
agreement for sale
See purchase and sales agreement.
Right to control the air space over a property.
Space above the surface of land not occupied by a building.
One who is not a permanent resident but is present in the U.S. on a nonimmigrant visa, is out of status, or entered without inspection.
alien registration card (green card)
Proof of lawful, permanent United States resident status.
Legal term for transferring title to real estate.
See acceleration clause.
Money paid by one party to the other, to assist in the other party's financial support. Some states refer to it as maintenance or spousal support.
An administrative law judge who hears a Medicaid appeal.
Proposal to purchase property without the contingency of needing to get a mortgage.
all-inclusive deed of trust
See wraparound mortgage.
Policy under which a loss resulting from any cause other than those causes specifically excluded by name is considered to be covered.
An application which, having been examined, is passed to issue as a patent, subject to payment of the issue fee.
An employee's spouse, child, or other dependent who, pursuant to a Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO), is awarded an interest in the employee's pension plan. Also, an employee's child who, pursuant to a Qualified Medical Child Support Order (QMCSO), becomes entitled to health insurance coverage under the plan in which the employee participates.
alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
A procedure for resolving disputes other than by a lawsuit. Arbitration and mediation are forms of ADR.
alternative market mechanisms
Programs established by the laws of states to provide availability of insurance to certain categories of hard to place insureds. Examples include assigned risk auto insurance programs.
A degenerative disease of the brain, marked by loss of cognitive functions and dementia, usually associated with the elderly.
See American Jurisprudence 2d.
Modify or change; under parliamentary procedure modify a motion by adding, deleting or substituting words.
Opportunity to make changes to either your claims or specification outside your claims, as well as arguments, in order to try to bring your application into condition for allowance.
Revision of a governing document or, under parliamentary procedure, a motion.
Describes any of several extras provided with a house.
American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB)
A voluntary organization that accredits sperm and egg donation banks.
American Dream Downpayment Assistance Act
Law passed that will provide funds for first time home buyers from 2004 to 2007, with some restrictions.
American Jurisprudence 2d
A legal encyclopedia covering the laws of all fifty states and the federal government.
American Law Reports
A set of books that report on legal topics of general interest. See also annotations.
American Medical Association (AMA)
The national professional organization for doctors.
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publis
Performance rights society.
American's with Disability Act (ADA)
A federal law that prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities.
An attorney appointed by the court to represent your grandchild.
Time-limited benefit allowing adjustment of status that will issue out green cards based upon residence in the U.S. prior to a certain date.
Repayment of the mortgage over a set number of years, which is the term of the mortgage. Lenders will sometimes provide an amortization schedule, which shows the total of each payment and the portion that is put against the principal and the interest amounts.
A table showing the amounts of principal and interest due at regular intervals and the unpaid mortgage balance after each payment is made.
The donation of an organ, other body part, or the entire body, upon death.
Probate of decedent's property located in a state other than the state in which the decedent lived.
Additional services provided by an assisted living or skilled care facility, beyond basic care, such as rehabilitative services like physical therapy or hospice services.
Friends, family, or wealthy individuals who invest their money, usually in start-up or early-stage companies.
(1) Abstracts, or summaries, of cases construing a particular point of law. (2) Comprehensive legal writings found in American Law Reports.
The amount of property a person can give to another person per year that is not counted against the lifetime unified credit.
A yearly amount charged by credit card companies for the privilege of holding the card.
annual membership meeting
Once a year assemblage of unit owners required by governing documents to conduct association business such as electing a Board of Directors.
annual mortgage statement
Report prepared by the lender that states the amount of taxes, insurance, and interest that was paid during the year, and the outstanding principal balance.
annual percentage rate
The interest rate plus certain costs of borrowing expressed as a percentage.
Report given once a year by the Board to the membership showing the condition of the association fiscally and otherwise.
A financial arrangement where a bank pays a yearly sum in exchange for equity interest in a home.
Charitable remainder trust that provides the donor a fixed annual income.
A legal procedure by which a marriage is declared invalid.
Pleading filed by a defendant or respondent setting out the reasons why the relief sought in a complaint or petition should not be granted.
If you fail to expressly define a term or if the term does not have an inherent meaning, you are not allowed to introduce the term in your claim by using the word "said" since your term is undefined.
A written, legal contract signed by the parties before their marriage, which spells out what property is owned by each, and how property will be divided in the event of divorce.
A clause that disinherits anyone who contests the will. It also disinherits any persons who attempt to contest non-will transfers such as joint tenancies, T.O.D. securities accounts or life insurance, or make claims against your estate for services rendered or under alleged oral agreements to share property.
Art term used to describe a reference which teaches each and every element of your claimed invention.
To ask a court to decide that another court's decision was wrong.
A court that hears appeals from trial courts.
Form used to apply for a mortgage that provides information on both the borrower and the property selected.
application data sheet
A sheet which contains information about your patent application. One of the important parts of information which it can contain is any claims of priority that you make to previously filed domestic or foreign applications.
Amount charged the borrower by the lender when the borrower fills out the loan application. (It may include the cost of an appraisal, credit report, lock-in fee, or other closing costs.)
application support center (ASC)
The facility that takes fingerprints of applicants.
The legal term for how real estate taxes, insurance premiums, and rents are fairly divided between seller and buyer.
A professional evaluation of the value of property.
Person who is professionally qualified to estimate the value of a property.
Increase in financial value of a home. (The economy, the neighborhood, the condition of the home, the property the home sits on, and other intangibles influence this value.)
A notice from a service center stating a petition is approved. See I-797 form.
Legal term meaning things attached to land such as a barn, garage, or an easement.
See annual percentage rate.
A type of dispute resolution, whereby one or more persons (called arbitrators) determine the outcome of the dispute, similar to the manner in which a judge makes a decision in a lawsuit. Arbitration can either be binding (meaning that the decision of the arbitrators is final) or nonbinding (meaning that either party can file a lawsuit to have the matter heard in a court). The idea is that arbitration is quicker and less expensive than a lawsuit in court, however, this is not always the case in practice.
Final written decision of the arbitrator or arbitrators.
Person who designs homes, additions, and remodeling.
architect's inspection certificate
Document issued by an independent architect, verifying that a certain portion of construction on a project has been completed in accordance with approved plans and specifications. (Used when building your own home to show the lender that work has been done.)
Remarks or oral presentation made in court by attorneys on behalf of the parties involved.
See adjustable rate mortgage.
Transcription into print music.
Past due, unpaid child support owed by the noncustodial parent.
Term for paying the mortgage or real estate taxes after the due date.
See I-94 form.
articles of incorporation
A legal document filed with a state government to set up a corporation.
articles of organization
A legal document filed with a state government to set up a limited liability company.
The use of feeding tubes (either through the mouth, nose, or intravenously) to provide water (hydration) to a person who is unable to drink in a normal manner.
The use of feeding tubes (either through the mouth, nose, or intravenously) to provide food (nutrition) to a person who is unable to eat in a normal manner.
Form of insulation or roofing.
Any ancestors of an individual (either living or dead), including parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, etc.
Amount for which a house is offered for sale.
A violent physical or verbal attack.
Value placed on a home by the tax assessor for the purpose of calculating the annual property tax.
(1) A special tax levied against a piece of property usually based upon some improvement benefiting that property. (2) Amount charged against each unit owner based on percentages of budgeted common expenses to fund the operation, administration, maintenance and management of the community.
Public records of taxable property.
The government official who appraises taxable property.
Money and real or personal property owned by a person or organization.
Person to whom a copyright has been transferred.
The transfer of legal rights to another person or entity. The person receiving the rights is called the assignee; the one transferring the rights is called the assignor. A transfer of duties is called a delegation. (2) A provision common to most insurance policies that provide that the insured cannot assign his or her rights and obligations under a policy to another person. This provision enforces the insurer's right to choose with whom it wishes to contract and insure.
assignment of the lease
Occurs when a new tenant steps into the shoes of the existing tenant by assuming possession of the premises and assuming the rights of the tenant under the original lease.
A facility in which assistance is provided with the activities of daily life.
assisted living facility
An institutional lifestyle option for a senior citizen or disabled person needing some assistance with self care, but not needing skilled nursing care. Assisted living staff assists the resident with various tasks, such as grooming and housekeeping, as needed.
assisted reproductive treatment (ART)
This is the medical assistance you receive as you try to conceive.
Money paid to a condominium or townhouse association.
A mortgage that allows a buyer to replace the seller by taking over the obligation of the loan.
A name under which a person, partnership, corporation, or other business entity conducts business.
Written agreement by one party to pay an obligation of another under the same terms.
Amount paid to the lender for the paperwork processing of an assumption of mortgage.
assumption of risk
The defense that a plaintiff should not be allowed to collect from a defendant after engaging in an activity that he knew to be dangerous, and voluntarily engaged in that activity anyway.
assumption/assumption of mortgage
Taking over the previous borrower's obligation on a mortgage.
One who has been granted asylum either through the Asylum Office or by the immigration judge but who has not yet adjusted status to that of a permanent resident.
A showing that one has a well-founded fear of persecution on the basis of political opinion, religion, gender, nationality or membership in a particular social group. (A well-founded fear can be thought of as a 10% chance of severe harm.)
An employee of the Department of Homeland Security who will conduct the initial administrative interview on an asylum application.
Employment that is not for any fixed or definite term. In an at-will employment relationship, the employee can quit at any time and the employer can fire the employee at any time with or without cause.
The primary physician who has responsibility for the treatment and care of the patient.
This clause comes after your signature and is where the witnesses declare under penalty of perjury that they witnessed your will.
attorney at litem
An attorney representative for your grandchild.
A person who is licensed to practice law before state of federal courts. The term has no relationship to an attorney-in-fact.
The person who is given authority by a power of attorney. This is another term for an agent. An attorney-in-fact does not have the power to represent anyone in court or to give legal advice.
A legal principle that applies in tort law wherein certain objects may be considered to be an attractive nuisance to a child and thereby create liability for the owner or manager of that property.
Examination of inventories, insurance policies, management and financial records and accounts to verify their accuracy and determine if they adequately reflect an association's status.
Person or firm, usually accountants, engaged to examine financial documents for errors or fraud.
A term defined by the law of a particular state, which describes exactly what property is included in the estate for particular purposes, such as in determining the spouse's intestate or elective share. This may include property that is in addition to property in the probate estate, may not include some property that is in the probate estate, or may simply be different from property in the probate estate. For example, a typical definition is: "the value of the probate assets reduced by funeral expenses, homestead, family allowances and exemptions, liens, mortgages, and enforceable claims."
Person who created a copyrightable work.
Medical examination of a body after death to determine cause of death.
A commission paid to a mortgage broker that is not charged as points to the borrower. The borrower will pay a higher rate of interest to make up for the commission payment.
Commonly describes rent that is more than one rental period in arrears, although it can mean any unpaid rent that is due.
Pay awarded to an employee or applicant for employment that, but for discrimination, an unfair labor practice, or other wrongful conduct by the employer, would have been earned between the time of the wrongful conduct and the time the award is made.
Acting with intent to do wrong rather than simply making a mistake.
bag and baggage letter
A form letter sent by the Deportation Office asking an alien to appear at the office with their luggage on a certain date to be deported.
bait and switch
Illegal practice of advertising a product or service at one price to get customers interested in buying and then trying to sell it to them at a higher price.
The total amount owed on an account.
Financial statement that presents a snapshot of what the business owns (assets), what it owes (liabilities), and what equity it has on a given date.
A mortgage contract with low monthly payments that do not increase until the final payment. The final payment, due at the end of the term of the mortgage, is usually very large.
A payment on a mortgage that is larger than the others.
balloon payment mortgage
A mortgage that has required payments not sufficient to pay it off (amortize it) during the term. As a consequence, the final payment is much larger than prior payments. This large payment is the balloon.
Paper used to cast secret vote.
A legal process that freezes all actions by creditors against a debtor. If the petition for bankruptcy is approved, all of the debt will be discharged or excused.
When a bankruptcy court allows a person to wipe out his or her debts.
To exchange services or property with someone who has property or services you need.
For unemployment insurance purposes, the most recent four out of five completed calendar quarters (quarters in which the employee worked) preceding the filing of a benefit claim.
base period employer
Any employer for whom an unemployment insurance claimant worked during his or her base period.
Causing harm to someone through impermissible contact.
Market characterized by falling prices. (A bear market in the mortgage industry may be triggered by rising interest rates.)
Suburban residential area where most residents commute to neighboring metropolitan areas for work.
An exception to the Fair Labor Standards Act's general overtime rules that allows an employer to pay a fixed salary to nonexempt employees who work an irregular number of hours from week to week because of the nature of the job, such as doctors, firefighters, etc.
below market interest rate (BMIR)
Type of mortgage insurance programs where the interest rates on the mortgages are below what is charged; used to assist low and moderate income families
Right to enjoy or profit from property held in trust; the person with the beneficial interest is the beneficiary.
Person who is named to receive some benefit or money from a legal document such as a trust, life insurance policy or will.
An agreement spelling out the rights and obligations of the beneficiaries of a trust.
To leave someone personal property in a will.
Gift of personal property left in a will.
best interest of the child
Standard used by courts as a part of deciding who should get custody of and visitation with a child.
best interests standard
The standard applied to the determination of custody, visitation, or parenting time used in all states. This standard makes certain presumptions about what is best for a child and examines the child's environment against certain factors set out in the relevant state's code.
An immigration term referring to couples each having a different country of origin or citizenship.
Invitation sent out to vendors to bid on providing services or equipment of a substantial nature.
A proposal for a law.
Bill of Rights
The first ten Amendments to the U. S. Constitution.
bill of sale
A document that is used to transfer ownership of items of personal property.
Document listing what is owed.
Written statement showing the work done by a vendor for goods or services in such detail as to accurately describe the basis for each charge.
Term used to indicate a preliminary agreement. (In real estate, a buyer usually provides a binder of earnest money with his or her offer to purchase a home.)
Arbitration which is final with no further recourse at the trial level. Arbitration is presumed to be binding unless there is some contrary provision in the contract providing for arbitration.
biographic information form
See G-325A form.
A person who provided genetic material to create a child.
The biological father of the child.
The biological mother of the child. Also sometimes defined as the woman who physically gave birth to the child.
The biological parent of the child.
biweekly payment mortgage
A mortgage loan requiring half the agreed upon monthly payment every two weeks. This results in a larger amount being paid each month, which reduces the principal balance and the length of the term.
The practice of circulating the names of former employees who should not be hired because of their history of union organizing efforts or other protected activity.
A mortgage that secures more than one piece of property. It is commonly used by builders for construction of a tract of land.
An early embryo.
See refugee travel document.
blue sky laws
A common name for laws regulating investments and securities.
Performance rights society.
Documents compiled, reported and reviewed each month by management and Board members for discussion and decision at regularly scheduled Board meetings.
board of directors
These are the individuals who control a corporation for the benefit of the stockholders. They listen to management's recommendations and set policy for the corporation.
Board of Immigration Appeals (BIA)
A separate office within the Executive Office of Immigration Review that administers appeals from the Immigration Court. It is located in Falls Church, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C.
A liability coverage concept. One of the categories of injury or damage to which liability coverages apply. Bodily injury in the insurance context means largely what most persons think of as personal injury. The laws of the states differ as to whether emotional distress in the absence of physical symptoms does or does not constitute bodily injury for insurance purposes. A spouse's loss of consortium claim is usually considered to be part of the injured spouse's bodily injury damages.
body of claim
The portion of your claim which contains the elements or limitations of your invention.
The basic terms and conditions that will generally be found in any standard rental agreement.
Legal term meaning "in good faith;" without fraud.
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
BFOQs are exceptions to certain forms of discrimination.
Money that backs a promise that an individual (usually the personal representative) will perform the duties required and not misuse estate funds.
Process of scheduling a live performance.
Person who arranges for musicians to play at venues.
An employee who is transferred from his or her regular employer to another employer on a temporary basis.
The one who receives funds in the form of a loan with the obligation of repaying the loan in full, with interest.
A summary that indicates what something really costs or can indicate profits after expenses are deducted.
See debt-to-income ratio.
Violating the terms of a contract without a legal excuse.
Loan that enables a homebuyer to get financing to make a down payment and pay closing costs on a new home before selling the present house.
Insurance term used to describe insurance coverage that extends beyond "standard" peril insurance policies, i.e., fire and extended coverage, named perils, etc.
(1) Person employed as an agent to bring buyers and sellers together and assist in negotiating contracts between them. (2) Person licensed to perform buying, selling, and renting services for real property. (3) A broker is a person who transacts insurance for another person for compensation, usually in the form of a commission, consisting of a percent of the premium of insurance policies placed.
bubble, real estate
Term used by financial experts to describe an economic condition where there is a lot of positive real estate activity (buying and selling of homes, new homes being built). This situation usually accompanies low interest rates on mortgages. The bubble theory is that real estate activity can only grow to a certain level, then it will stop and that will cause the value of housing to go down.
A way to organize expenses and income so that you can control your spending.
Person or company that is responsible for the construction of a building.
Local regulations and laws that define all aspects of a structure.
building code upgrade coverage
A property coverage that applies to increased costs of construction after loss occasioned by changes in building code requirements since a home or other building was built. Coverage is usually not included unless the insured requests such coverage and pays an additional premium for same.
Written authorization from a local government for the construction of a new building or for extensive repairs or improvements on an existing structure.
Permanent, immovable appliances or similar features.
burden of proof
Standard of proof which the plaintiff must sustain in order to make out a case and defeat a motion for judgment.
Clauses in a contract that are difficult to find unless the contract is read very carefully. The law requires certain clauses to be in a specific size or bold type or to be located in an easy to see place, such as just above where the parties will sign.
Days on which a bank or market is open for business or trading; usually excludes Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays.
business judgment rule
Standard of conduct for the Board of Directors; also called the prudent person rule.
Person who handles financial affairs.
A way to track strategies, sales projections, and key personnel. Also, a road map for marketing activities, mission implementation, goals, raising and spending business income, and financing administration needs. (Often called an operations plan.)
business pursuits exclusions
An exclusion and definition contained in and relevant to liability coverages under homeowners policies. Business is broadly defined as any trade, profession, or occupation carried on for a profit motive. Business pursuits and activities are typically excluded from coverage under homeowners policies
A term for how your business is organized. Can also refer to an organizational chart of who does what job.
Money paid by the buyer of a house to reduce the monthly mortgage payments.
When someone, or the partnership itself, purchases the partnership interest of one of the partners.
A payment of a lump sum of money to a lender to reduce the interest rate of a loan. The reduced rate may be for the life of the loan, or more commonly, for the first few years of the loan.
Real estate agent hired by the buyer to represent him or her in finding a home and negotiating its purchase.
A real estate agent who acts as agent of a buyer.
Economic conditions in which the supply of housing exceeds demand. (Sellers may be forced to make substantial price concessions.)
Feeling when the buyer realizes that he or she has taken on a large debt.
buying on time
Making installment payments on an item, instead of paying the total amount all at once.
Secondary laws of an association that govern its internal affairs and deal with routine operational and administrative matters.
Trust typically created by a married couple to contain property that will not be included, for estate tax purposes, in the estate of the surviving spouse. The surviving spouse receives income from the trust but not the principal.
A corporation that pays taxes on its profits.
Loans to people with low credit scores or other risk factors; usually at much-higher than typical interest rates.
A convenience store.
See Corpus Juris Secundum.
See section 125 plan.
California Association of Community Managers (CACM
Professional trade organization offering a statewide certification program.
Used in the immigration court to indicate when motions or supporting documents are due to the court. It is usually ten or fourteen days before the hearing.
The termination of an insurance policy during the middle of a policy period, by either the insured or the insurer. Many states' statutes restrict insurers' rights to cancel policies midterm. Nonpayment of premium is usually a permitted ground for cancellation, as well as material increase in hazard. If an insurer cancels midterm, the insured is entitled to a prorated refund of premium. If an insured cancels a policy midterm, the insurer usually imposes a ten percent penalty on the amount of the premium refund.
Provision in a contract that lists the conditions under which each party may end the agreement.
cancellation of removal
Procedure available to one who is before the Immigration Court and can demonstrate that he or she has lived for ten years in the U.S., is a person of good moral character, and that there would be extremely unusual hardship to a U.S. citizen or LPR parent, spouse, or child if he or she was deported.
Money invested in a business by the owner(s). Also called equity.
Purchases of long-term assets, such as equipment.
A major investment in a home that becomes part of the home, such as remodeled kitchen, garage, and additional rooms.
A method of estimating the value of income producing property by calculating the Net Operating Income and then assigning a Cap Rate. The Net Operating Income divided by the Cap Rate gives you an estimate of value.
Rate commitment by a lender that locks in a maximum rate, but allows the borrower to relock if market rates decrease.
A consumer safeguard on an adjustable-rate mortgage that limits the amount that the interest rate may change per year or over the life of the loan.
A consumer safeguard on an adjustable-rate mortgage that limits the amount monthly payments may change.
Agreement whereby the seller takes back a note for part of the purchase price secured by a junior mortgage, wrap-around mortgage, or contract for deed.
Written decisions of trial or appellate courts.
See case law.
The title to a case, it lists the parties involved.
Method of recording revenue when actual cash is received and expenses when actual cash disbursements are made.
cash balance plan
A pension plan that has characteristics of both a defined contribution plan and a defined benefit plan. In a cash balance plan, the ultimate benefit is defined in terms of periodic contributions to a separate hypothetical account for each employee and an assumed interest rate earned on those contributions.
Amount of and frequency with which a business receives payments.
A property is "cash flowing" when you're able to put money in the bank each month.
Method of keeping accounts by recording income and expenses only when they are paid out or received.
cash or deferral arrangement (CODA)
A feature of some deferred compensation plans under which the employee can elect to take taxable cash or a nontaxable contribution to the plan.
An employee who is not covered by workers' compensation because he or she works irregularly, for a brief period only, and does work not normally performed by employees of the employer.
A necessary element to collect damages. The plaintiff must show that the defendant's conduct caused the damages to the plaintiff.
A reason that is legally sufficient to discharge an employee who has an employment contract.
Compact Disc-Read Only Memory. Used to store computer programs.
One of the parties to a reinsurance transaction. The cedent is the insurer which cedes a portion of the risk or liability assumed under a policy issued to an insured to a reinsurer and pays the reinsurer a proportionate share of the policy's premium to the reinsurer.
Items removed from publication.
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)
The federal office that administers Medicare, and in conjunction with the individual states, Medicaid.
certificate of citizenship
Document given in place of a naturalization certificate to those born abroad to U.S. citizens, adopted by U.S. citizens, or children whose parents naturalized. Normally given to those who qualify for citizenship without first becoming a permanent resident.
certificate of completion
Document issued by an architect or engineer stating that construction is completed in accordance with the terms, conditions, approved plans, and specifications
certificate of deposit index
Index commonly used for interest rate changes in ARM mortgages.
certificate of eligibility
A document issued by the Veterans Administration showing that a specific veteran may apply for a VA guaranteed mortgage.
certificate of limited partnership
A legal document filed with the state government to register a limited partnership.
certificate of occupancy
Written authorization given by local government that legally allows a newly completed or substantially renovated structure to be used by people.
certificate of reasonable value
The name for the appraisal used for a VA guaranteed mortgage.
certificate of reasonable value (CRV)
Used in a VA-guaranteed mortgage, it is the appraisal issued to the Veterans Administration that shows the property's value.
certificate of title
A document drafted by a title company, attorney, or abstract company that states who is the legal owner of a property.
certificate of veteran status
An FHA form completed by the Department of Veteran Affairs in order to establish a borrower's eligibility for an FHA, Vet Mortgage.
certificates of insurance
Form that shows insurance policy coverage, limits, etc.; generally used as proof of insurance.
The certification is where you date and sign your inter-vivos trust in the presence of a notary who acknowledges your signatures.
certified nurses aide (CNA)
A health-care professional who has received state certification upon completion of required training, but who is not a licensed nursing professional.
Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
Accountant who has met certain state legal requirements.
chain of title
The history of who owned or had liens on a property.
challenge for cause
Disqualifying a juror because of perceived prejudice concerning matters relevant at trial.
Chamber of Commerce
Association of merchants for the promotion of commercial interests in the community; provides valuable information on the town.
change of status (COS)
An application made on Form I-539 by one in the U.S. to change from one nonimmigrant status to another.
change of venue
Request of the applicant or by motion of a respondent to change the jurisdiction of the USCIS office or immigration court based on a change of address.
Type of bankruptcy used by businesses that is a reorganization of debts with a repayment schedule that is acceptable to the creditors.
Type of bankruptcy where an individual debtor files a budget with the court and agrees to make partial payments to creditors over a three-to-five year period.
Type of bankruptcy filing which gives a trustee the power to distribute a debtor's assets to creditors.
A claim against an interest in property.
charitable lead trust
Trust that donates to a charity income from trust assets while reserving the assets for later distribution to other beneficiaries. Compare with charitable remainder trust.
charitable remainder trust
Trust that pays income from trust assets to the donor or beneficiaries while reserving the assets for later contribution to a charity. Compare with charitable lead trust.
A school that is not a regular public school, but is funded by the government.
Child Citizenship Act of 2000
A federal law that allows an internationally adopted child to automatically become a US citizen.
Labor by a person under 18 years-of-age.
An amount of money paid by one parent to another under court order to assist in financially supporting a child.
child support enforcement agency
A standard method states use for setting child support.
child support guidelines
Each state's guidelines may be different.
A trust set up to hold property given to children. Usually it provides that the children will not receive their property until they reach a higher age than the age of majority.
chose in action
A right to recover personal property, a debt, or damages by a lawsuit. A potential or pending lawsuit for the recovery of property or money.
An IRS publication for employers, also known as Publication 15, containing instructions and tables for federal income tax withholding and payroll tax obligations.
The way all legal materials are quoted. It is a form of legal shorthand used to give information about where a case or statute can be found.
The case you are shepardizing. See Shephard's Citations.
That body of law consisting of statutes, case decisions, and administrative rules and regulations for matters that are noncriminal.
Civil Rights Act
The Act that was significantly amended in 1991 is the principal federal statute prohibiting discrimination in employment and public accommodations.
A life partnership between two people of the same sex, similar to marriage, under Vermont law.
Someone who believes he has a claim against another.
Categories of people protected from discrimination.
Short code that appears on the green card and approval notice. It is the basis upon which one became a permanent resident.
A title to property that does not have liens or legal complications.
Generally, a running total of the number of days since an asylum application has been filed. It is used in determining when an asylum applicant may file a work permit application. The term is also used when accruing illegal presence.
Different procedures used to create a copy of a cell.
An adoption whereby the child has no information about the birth parents.
Right of one real estate agent to be the only one who may sell the property during a period of time.
An interval of time under a mortgage during which the loan cannot be prepaid.
A type of union security agreement where employees must be union members in order to be hired.
The event where the purchase of the property is completed. It is usually attended by the buyer, seller, and lender (or their legal representatives). Documents are signed, money exchanged, and the buyer gets the keys to the home.
Closing address made by each side summing up the evidence and events of the trial in the light most favorable to that side.
Expenses in addition to the price of the property that are paid by both buyer and seller.
The date that the purchase and sale of a property are finalized.
The document that summarizes all of the payments, expenses, and prorations in the sale and purchase of a property.
A problem with the title to a piece of property.
cloud on title
A lien on a title that must be cleared up for the title to pass from the seller to the buyer.
Zoning procedure where there is a limit on the number of houses, structures, or density for an entire area.
Additional person equally responsible for payments on a mortgage.
(1) The collection of a state's laws, such as "Code of Alabama." Many states use the term statutes instead. (2) The collection of a state's laws on a particular subject, such as "Probate Code."
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
A multi-volume detailed interpretation of federal laws, including immigration laws.
A written charge or amendment to a will.
coercive partner notification
A practice where partners are notified against the will of a patient regarding a health condition, usually relating to sexually transmitted diseases.
Work done by two or more authors of the same copyrightable material.
An alternative dispute resolution technique where attorneys work in a cooperative fashion, instead of as adversaries, to make decisions regarding such issues as property division and issues concerning children without involving a court.
Colleague or teammate.
Property that is pledged as security against a debt.
The mortgaged property. When a person borrows money, the loan is secured by the promise to repay. When the lender requires more security, such as real estate, the property is the collateral security.
A company that collects debts on behalf of creditors.
collective bargaining agreement (CBA)
An agreement between an employer and a union dealing with employee pay, benefits, disciplinary, grievance procedures, and other conditions of employment.
One of the physical damage coverages of auto policies. Collision generally is defined as the upset of or contact of an insured vehicle with another vehicle or object.
A clause in Article I of the U.S. Constitution empowering Congress to regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several States, and with the Indian tribes.
commercial real property
Real property that is used for business or industrial purposes.
The mixing of two types of property. In the context of premarital agreements, divorce, and probate, it typically refers to mixing marital and nonmarital property. For example, prior to marriage the wife has a bank account, which would be nonmarital property under the laws of her state. After marriage she adds money from her paychecks, which would be marital property under the laws of her state. She now has a bank account with marital and nonmarital property commingled.
(1) Real estate agent's compensation for negotiating a real estate transaction, often expressed as a percentage of the selling price. (2) Court authorization to take the oath of a witness to will.
Percentage charged to compensate the lender or mortgage broker for services.
commissioner's adjusted fair market value (CAFMV)
HUD's estimate of the fair market value of a property in foreclosure.
1. A guarantee by a lender that the borrower will get a loan on the specified terms. 2. A preliminary report by a title company guaranteeing title insurance if certain specified conditions are met.
Agreement by a lender to provide long term financing to a builder, secured by an existing or proposed building(s).
Celebration of a life partnership.
Fee paid by a potential borrower to a potential lender for the lender's promise to loan money at a specified date in the future.
Promise from a lender to provide the borrower with a mortgage.
Group of people officially designated to perform a function, such as investigate and report on a matter to the Board of Directors.
Property owned jointly by all unit owners that ordinarily includes land and structure or portions of structure not otherwise described as units.
Costs of managing, maintaining, administering, repairing, replacing and operating the community.
Common Interest Development (CID)
Community Association in the form of condominiums, stock cooperative, community apartment project or planned development.
Legal principals that are determined in court cases, rather than statutes enacted by a legislature.
Units representing ownership of a corporation. The owners (shareholders) are typically entitled to vote on the selection of directors and other company matters, as well as receive dividends on their holdings. If the company is liquidated, the claims of its creditors and owners of bonds or preferred stock take precedence over the common stockholders.
community apartment project
Development where an undivided interest in the land and the building is tied to the exclusive right to occupy an apartment. This means that the owners of the development through the association are their own landlords.
Private organization, usually nonprofit, responsible for the total operation of communities included but not limited to, condominiums, cooperatives, time-sharing and planned unit developments.
Community Associations Institute (CAI)
Independent nonprofit research and educational organization formed in 1973 to develop and distribute guidance on condominium and Homeowners Associations
Property acquired during marriage from the efforts of one or more of the spouses. Term applies in Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin. See also separate property.
Community Reinvestment Act (CRA)
Federal legislation that requires every financial institution to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low- and moderate income neighborhoods.
community spouse resource amount
An amount the spouse of a person receiving Medicaid may keep as assets.
Second borrower who signs a mortgage loan with a mortgagor.
comp time (compensatory time)
Leave taken in lieu of overtime pay. Use of comp time to compensate a nonexempt employee who works more than forty hours in one workweek generally violates wage-and-hour laws.
A computer disc that is capable of storing large quantities of information.
Similar properties in the same area that have recently sold.
A method of estimating value by comparing the subject property to similar properties that have sold in the recent past.
The percentage of negligence attributable to the injured party. It reduces the amount recoverable from the defendant by the same percentage.
Compensation for all proven injury or loss, such as medical bills, lost earnings or automobile property damage.
The action of two or more commercial interests to obtain the same business from third parties.
Research done to obtain an edge on competitors.
A collection of copyrighted works.
A legal pleading, beginning a law suit, that states the nature of the plaintiff's claim, the request for damages and the basis for the court to hear the case.
Situation where interest is computed on both the original principal and accrued interest.
The other physical damage coverage of auto policies. Some insurer's comprehensive coverage is limited to certain named or listed perils. It is more common for comprehensive coverage to be stated in terms of accidental direct physical loss, unless excluded.
Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation
Federal law controlling hazardous substance pollution and liability.
The right of a person to use a copyrighted musical work as long as a statutory fee is paid to the copyright owner.
Union organizing activity or other activity by employees for the purpose of bettering wages, hours, or working conditions. Concerted activity is protected by the National Labor Relations Act.
Also referred to as multiple causation. A concept applicable to property coverages. Coverage issues can arise when a noncovered and a covered cause of loss combine to result in loss or damage. Most states use an efficient proximate cause analysis to determine whether coverage exists in such a situation. The efficient proximate cause of loss is referred to as the predominant cause. If the efficient proximate cause of loss is covered, the loss is covered, and the obverse.
Taking of private property for public use under the right of eminent domain with just compensation paid the owner.
One who has obtained conditional permanent residence through marriage to a U.S. citizen (where the marriage is less than two years old at the time of adjustment) or through a qualifying investment.
Conditions, Covenants, and Restrictions (CC&Rs)
In some jurisdictions, a basic document recorded to enumerate the property interests in a Community Association, similar to a declaration.
Form of ownership in a multifamily housing development that combines exclusive ownership of a dwelling unit and joint ownership of common areas.
condominium association fee
Fee paid by the homeowner to the association that governs a condominium.
Process of changing rental units into a condominium form of ownership.
conflict management policy
A predetermined business policy for handling disputes with customers, vendors, and others in running the business.
conflict of interest
Situation where a person has two or more interests which conflict.
A loan that follows the Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac guidelines for sale in the secondary market.
A legal agreement that an adoption should take place.
An exchange of something valuable, which makes a contract legally binding.
Store that sells goods made by others. The purchase price includes a percentage kept by the store.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (CO
A federal law making health insurance available to employees for a period of time after leaving a job.
Combining several loans into one with a lower monthly payment. Most often used with student loans.
A mortgage loan used to pay off other debts, such as car loans and credit cards. The purpose is to lower the interest rate and monthly payments of the borrower from the higher interest rate loans to the mortgage interest rate.
Agreement between a general contractor and an owner/developer stating the specific duties the general contractor will perform according to blueprints and specifications at a stipulated price and terms of payment.
All costs incurred in the construction project, including land, labor, overhead, and builder's profit.
Short-term, interim loan for financing the cost of construction. The lender advances funds to the builder at periodic intervals as work progresses.
construction loan agreement
Written agreement between a lender and a builder or borrower that details the specific terms and conditions of a construction loan, including the schedule of payments.
A termination where the employee is forced to quit, either directly or as a result of intolerable working conditions.
Claimed by the tenant when a dwelling becomes uninhabitable or unfit, and he or she reasonably has no choice but to move.
constructive service of process
The act of notifying a person that he is being sued by placing a notice in the newspaper and mailing him a copy.
Office run by the U.S. Department of State and is a sub-office in a larger foreign country of the main embassy office. It is responsible for the issuance of immigrant and nonimmigrant visas to aliens for entry into the U.S. May also make determinations on U.S. citizenship.
Consumer Credit Counseling
A service that will assist you in combining your debts into one monthly payment.
consumer credit counseling program
A program to help a consumer lower his or her debts, prepare a budget, and clean up any credit score problems.
A credit report and/or an investigative report about a person. The obtaining and use of consumer reports by employers are regulated by the Fair Credit Reporting Act and by some state laws.
consumer reporting agency (CRA)
A person or entity which, for a fee, regularly assembles or evaluates credit information or other information on consumers for the purpose of furnishing consumer reports to third parties. The obtaining and use of consumer reports from a CRA is regulated by the Fair Credit Reporting Act and by some state laws.
A judicial determination that a person wilfully failed to follow the court's order.
contempt of court
Violation of a court order or improper behavior in a courtroom.
Adjoining or next to.
(1) Things that may or may not happen in the future. (2) A condition that must be met before a contract can be enforced. (In an offer contract for real estate, common contingencies are that the property pass inspections and the buyers are able to obtain financing.)
Wording in a contract that makes it unenforceable if specified conditions are not met. Common examples are clauses that state that a buyer is not obligated to buy property until and unless he or she is able to sell currently owned property, or that the buyer is not obligated to buy property if he or she is unable to get a mortgage loan for a certain amount.
Fee paid to a lawyer consisting of a percentage of the amount recovered in litigation.
Funds set aside to cover unanticipated emergencies or major expenditures not included in the current fiscal year operating budget.
Persons who become owners of property after the previous owners die.
The amount an attorney charges for handling a personal injury case. It is calculated as a percentage of whatever the client is awarded.
Interest in property that is dependent on the occurrence of a future event, such as a college graduation, not on the passage of time.
A possibility that at a future time a person will have financial liability.
A worker who is outside an employer's core workforce of full-time, long-term employees. Contingent workers include independent contractors, part-time employees, job sharers, temporary employees, leased employees, and joint employees.
A second or even later filed application covering the same invention for which you previously filed a patent application. By filing a continuation, you maintain the ability to change the scope of your claims in case a cunning competitor is successful in designing around your claims of your issued patent.
continuation-in-part application (CIP)
CIPs are applications which are filed later so as to include new matter to your specification which was not included in your originally filed application.
continuing care community
A long-term living choice that provides all levels of care for residents from senior living to skilled nursing care.
continuing care retirement community (CCRC)
A lifestyle option for seniors that provides a range of services and accommodations in a single facility or complex. Typically, a CCRC will contain some type of independent living accommodations, assisted living, skilled nursing facilities, and in some cases, specialized units, such as an Alzheimer's disease wing.
An agreement to either do or not do something that involves the exchange of some consideration.
contract for deed
A legal instrument in which two parties agree to the purchase and sale of a piece of property for a series of payments. Also known as an agreement for deed.
contract to purchase
See purchase and sale agreement.
Person or company who agrees to do work and/or furnish materials for a contracted price. (Subcontractors are often hired by the contractor to perform specialized or technical labor.)
A concept that applies in tort law whereby a plaintiff's claim may be barred if the plaintiff is guilty of any negligence that caused the injury.
Mortgage financing that is not insured or guaranteed by a government agency.
Mortgage that is not insured by FHA or VA.
A mortgage not made, insured, or guaranteed by a government agency.
Feature of a mortgage that allows the conversion to another interest rate, mortgage term, or type of mortgage instrument.
Usually refers to debt or preferred stock, each of which is convertible into common stock of the company. Obviously, it is possible to have debt convertible into preferred stock and it is even possible to have preferred stock convertible into debt, although the latter is unusual.
Adjustable rate mortgages that can convert to fixed rate loans at a future date.
Type of adjustable-rate mortgage that may be converted to a fixed-rate mortgage.
The transfer of a piece of real property.
A determination in a court case that someone broke the law and a sentence issued.
Period of time, provided by law or by contract, during which a party to a contract can legally back out of a contract.
Cooperation clauses appear in both property and liability policies. An insured's breach of a cooperation clause can result in a denial of coverage if the insurer can show that it was actually and substantially prejudiced by the insured's lack of cooperation. In the liability context, the purpose of the cooperation clause has been stated to assist the insurer's defense of a suit against the insured, and to prevent collusion between the insured and the claimant.
A type of subdivision in which the property owners own stock in the real estate project, with each given the exclusive right to occupy a unit. Also called a stock cooperative.
Legal protection given to original works of authorship.
Act that violates the ownership interest in a creative work.
Type of punishment that involves physical contact.
corporate ethics committee
In the case of company-owned long-term care facilities, a committee made up of corporate support staff to address topics that are germane to such facilities, including ethical health-care issues and certain resident grievances.
An artificial person that is set up to conduct business owned by shareholders and run by officers and directors. Each state determines its own rules regarding corporations.
Corpus Juris Secundum
A legal encyclopedia covering the laws of all fifty states and the federal government.
Any letters or items that you have sent or received through the mail, email, or fax.
Someone who agrees to be responsible for a debt if the debtor does not make payments.
Cost of Funds Index (COFI)
An index that may be used to set interest rates in an ARM.
cost of living
Cost of the basic necessities of life.
Money expended in the pursuit of a lawsuit. It includes the cost of obtaining medical records, filing the lawsuit and any motions, investigating the accident, obtaining expert testimony, taking depositions, procuring the attendance of witnesses, etc.
Home seller's response to buyer's offer on the house.
A response to a petition, which seeks some relief from the court rather than merely admitting or denying the allegations in the petition.
Detailed report of each foreign country published each February by the Department of State regarding human rights conditions in each country. These are heavily relied upon by immigration judges and asylum officers in deciding an asylum application.
A general term covering any number of court proceedings. It differs from a trial in that there is no jury and may be based on legal, rather than factual, issues.
court-appointed special advocate (CASA)
A person, usually a specially trained volunteer, who is appointed to monitor the case to be sure the best interest of the child is being protected. This person is not a lawyer representing the child.
An agreement in a contract.
Song written by one person and performed by another.
A company that compiles records of a person's debts, and whether these debts were repaid as agreed.
A card that allows you to charge items to your account. Interest is charged on balances not paid off during the billing cycle.
credit estate tax
State tax on the assets of someone who has died. Applies only in some states and only to estates that are required to pay federal estate taxes. Estate does not pay double taxes but instead, by paying a credit estate tax, rebates part of the federal estate tax owed back to the state.
Your past credit reports that indicate how much of a risk you are to loan money to.
The total amount you are authorized to charge on a credit card.
A numerical value determined by a person's or a corporation's history in paying bills.
A history of the debts of a person with emphasis on whether the debts were paid as agreed. The report is commonly used by prospective lenders, landlords, and employers.
credit reporting agencies
Companies that create credit reports by gathering information from creditors.
See credit bureau.
A number derived by a formula that rates a person's credit history.
credit shelter trust
Another name for bypass trust.
A person or institution to whom money is owed.
A legal action to collect money.
A determination done by comparing a person's borrowing history with that of other consumers.
The process in which a body is turned to ash.
crime involving moral turpitude (CIMT)
There is no statutory definition, and it is somewhat in the eye of the beholder. A CIMT within five years of adjustment or any two CIMTs at any time may make a person removable. There is a long list of CIMTs. A retail theft, for example, is a CIMT.
Statutes enacted by federal, state or local legislative bodies that impose criminal penalties for certain actions. The criminal penalty may consist of being imprisoned or being fined.
Hypothecating additional property to obtain a mortgage. For example, the borrower does not have sufficient equity in the home to get the desired loan, so he or she puts up a vacation home as additional security.
The right, given in a contract, to be repaid money advanced on one project from the monies received from other projects.
The opportunity of a party to ask leading questions of the witness put on by the other party in order to clarify, limit, or impeach that witness' testimony before a court.
The freezing of eggs, sperm, or embryos.
cul de sac
Residential street that ends in a large turn around.
A violation of a contract that can be corrected. A landlord can send a notice to a tenant demanding that the tenant correct the violation of the lease before beginning eviction.
Current Law Index
A guide to locating law reviews and legal periodicals.
A visa where the priority date on the I-130 approval notice moves past the date reflected on the visa bulletin published by the Department of State.
The program of study at school.
custodial care facility
An assisted-living facility.
The person with whom the child primarily lives.
A person appointed under the Uniform Gift to Minors Act (sometimes called Uniform Transfers to Minors Act), who has a fiduciary position over assets which are for the benefit of a minor or person under the age of 25 years. In essence, a trustee without formal trust documents.
The term for the person who has the rights and duties of a parent. Can also refer to physical possession of the child. Legal custody is a determination by a court that establishes with whom a child will live. Physical custody describes with whom the child is living regardless of the legal custody status. Joint custody occurs when two persons share legal and/or physical custody of a child. Split custody occurs when two or more children are in the legal custody of different people. Some states use the concept of parenting time instead of custody.
The date on the Department of State's monthly visa chart that makes people whose priority date is before it eligible to apply for permanent residence.
Period of time, such as when the economy is growing or when it is in a recession.
Material that fills the egg and gives it energy.
A technique that removes cytoplasm from a donor egg and injects it into the mother's egg.
D & O insurance (directors and officers insurance)
Coverage that protects company officials from personal liability for good faith actions taken in the course of their employment.
Abbreviation for doing business as.
The sum of money that an injured party claims the other party owes for all losses, expenses, and harm to property or persons.
A type of card in which the user deposits a certain amount of money with the bank and then charges against it, using that money to pay the items charged.
An amount of money owed.
Person whose job is to collect money owed on debts.
The amount of money a person owes in relation to his or her net worth.
The amount of money you have to pay on a debt in order to keep it from being in default. If you make the payments that are called for under a note or loan, then you are servicing the debt.
The percentage of a person's income that is already allocated to debts such as, mortgages, loans, utilities, and credit cards.
A person or institution who owes money.
A person who has died.
A trust created at the decedent's death to take advantage of decedent's federal estate tax exemption.
decennial digests, or decennials
Sets of digests, grouped in ten year periods, which cover all of the states and all federal jurisdictions.
A person who signs a living will, usually when the living will document is titled "Declaration."
(1) Another name for a health care directive. (2) A statement that warns you about willful false statements. (3) That portion of a policy that identifies the policy to the insured. The declarations, or declarations page, show who the insurer is, the policy number and policy period, who the named insured is, its mailing address, the address of premises insured, the coverages afforded, the policy limits applicable to each coverage, the deductible(s), and often, the forms contained in the policy. (4) In some jurisdictions, this is a basic document recorded to set out property interests in a Community Association, similar to CC&Rs.
An order that has the force of law. This may also be called a judgment.
The amount of money you must pay on an insurance claim before your insurance will begin to make payments on the claim.
An amount subtracted from gross income when calculating adjusted gross income.
A legal instrument that transfers an interest in a property.
deed in lieu of foreclosure
A deed given by the property owner to a lender instead of the lender going through the foreclosure process. Its purpose is to save the time and expense of foreclosure when the borrower has little or no equity in the property.
deed of trust
deed of trust
A document used in some states instead of a mortgage. It has the same purpose as a mortgage, but is structured differently.
Harming a person's reputation by making a false statement to another person, either in writing or orally.
(1) Failure to fulfill or live up to terms of an agreement. (2) The failure of a defendant to file an answer or appear in court within the time limit after having been served with a summons and complaint. The failure to appear can then lead to a default judgment being entered by a court.
Letter sent to the borrower indicating that the mortgage has not been paid or that the borrower has violated one of the requirements of the mortgage (such as keeping the property insured) and asks what the lender is going to do about this issue.
The person against whom a case is filed. This person may also be called a respondent.
A list of cases filed by the name of the defendant. This lets the researcher see all the cases filed in the past against a particular person.
Occurs when a loan is put on hold without payments becoming due. Usually only applies to student loans.
Formerly known as deferred inspection. Where a nonimmigrant or possibly lawful permanent residence had trouble reentering the U.S. and must appear at the local USCIS office to clarify their status.
Compensation set aside for an employee, but not currently taxable to the employee, because the employee's receipt and enjoyment of the compensation is deferred.
A mortgage that is written so the interest payments are delayed for a period of time.
Repairs that have been put off for awhile and are starting to pile up.
The money a borrower might still owe their lender after a foreclosure.
The amount still owed on a debt after a foreclosure or court ordered sale.
defined benefit plan
A type of retirement plan in which the benefit amount is fixed by a predetermined formula including such factors as years of service and preretirement compensation. Contributions to the plan are calculated so that the plan will have sufficient funds to pay the promised benefit.
defined contribution plan
A type of retirement plan in which the amount contributed to the plan is fixed by a predetermined formula and the benefit amount depends on the value of each participant's separate account within the plan.
That time during a jury trial when the jury leaves the courtroom to weigh and analyze the facts in the case, in order to ultimately reach a verdict.
An amount that was paid later than agreed or not paid at all.
Late or overdue.
Correspondence in which an injured party explains its side of a legal dispute, and requests a sum of money to settle the case.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Newly formed department responsible for government functions related to security. The former INS has been split into the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), which is responsible for administering immigration services, and the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which is responsible for immigration enforcement within the U.S.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
A government agency that promotes fair housing principles and can provide certain types of relief for aggrieved parties.
Department of Labor (DOL)
Through its oversight of the labor certification process, it is responsible for providing determinations as to the availability of qualified U.S. workers for positions offered in many of the employment-based categories.
Department of State
Runs the embassies and consulates, which decide on immigrant and nonimmigrant visa applications. Also runs the Passport Office.
Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Agency of the U.S. government that manages benefits and other issues for veterans of the military.
A claim that refers back and further restricts a single preceding claim.
State where the alien is either being asked or may be asked in the future to leave the U.S.
This occurs when a person is physically taken by an DHS Deportation officer to his or her native country, usually because either a deportation order or removal order from the immigration court exists.
A USCIS employee whose responsibility is to apprehend and deport illegal aliens from the U.S.
See earnest money.
Part of the discovery process in a case, a deposition is comprised of questions asked and answers given by a witness in a case who is under oath. The questioning is done by the opposing attorney and is not in a courtroom, nor under the supervision of a judge. The answers are recorded by a court reporter.
An accounting concept in which the IRS, and other people, pretend that assets will decrease steadily in value over a predetermined time period until, at the very end, they are completely worthless. It usually bears no relationship to reality, but does allow you to write off expenses on your taxes even though you're not actually writing checks for those expenses.
One who obtains status on a visa petition not on account of their own standing but because of their relationship to the principal beneficiary, such as a child through his or her parent.
A creative work based upon a previously copyrighted work.
A living person born into the family line (a child, grandchild, etc.)
Any offspring of an individual (either living or dead), including children, grandchildren, etc.
design patent application
Type of application that protects the ornamental appearance of something. It is one of three types of patent applications, the others being utility and plant patent applications.
Person or entity who prepares raw land for building sites or rehabilitates existing buildings.
Real property left to someone in a will. In many states, used interchangeably with bequest.
The person who is left real property in a will.
The primary guide to finding case law in reporters. It is a compilation of abstracts or summaries of each case in a particular jurisdiction or legal area.
Reduction in the value of a company's outstanding stock caused by issuance of additional stock.
A nursing staff member of a long-term care facility who provides one-on-one care directly to a resident.
The questioning of a witness by the attorney who calls that witness as part of his case.
A mortgage lender of any size that makes loans from the lenders' own portfolio of assets.
Liability for an employer's own negligence in hiring, retaining, or failing to supervise an employee who presents an unreasonable risk of injury or damage to the public.
direct threat defense
A provision of the Americans with Disabilities Act that allows employers to exclude disabled employees from certain jobs where the disabled person would pose a direct threat to his or her own health or safety or to the health or safety of others in the workplace.
directors and officers liability insurance (D&O)
Protection against loss arising out of alleged errors in judgment, breaches of duty and wrongful acts of a Board of Directors and/or officers in carrying out their prescribed duties.
For Americans with Disabilities Act purposes, a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.
The act of informing a party, usually the buyer, of conditions and matters relating to the property.
The blank spaces in the rental agreement that require individual information, including certain information that may be required by state law.
An allowance or deduction made from a gross sum.
The percentage paid to reduce the interest rate to a borrower or a reduction from face value in order to sell a loan in the secondary mortgage market.
Documents which may be required to be produced in the discovery phase of litigation.
The formal process by which parties to court proceedings obtain information and documents from opposing parties and question opposing parties and nonparty witnesses under oath.
Motion through which one party attempts to obtain the court's assistance in forcing the other party to produce information about the case.
Legal term meaning being denied rights or treated unfairly because of membership in a minority group.
This clause states that all persons other than your specifically named beneficiaries are disinherited.
In discrimination law, the effect of workplace rules or requirements that appear neutral on their face but that have an adverse impact on a particular race, age group, and so on.
In discrimination law, intentional adverse treatment of an applicant or employee because of his or her race, religion, gender, and so on.
disposition (of an action)
The final action taken in an action. This will usually either be a final judgment or a dismissal.
California is the only state to currently have a disqualified persons statute. If bequests you are considering fall within the California disqualified persons statute you should consider safeguards such as the qualifying procedures discussed earlier. It is important to be aware of such laws as they can, if enacted, apply retroactively.
(1) Ending an agreement or partnership. (2) The closing of a limited liability company.
dissolution of marriage
Legal term for divorce used in some states.
A polite way of referring to a property owner facing foreclosure.
A transfer of money or other property from a partnership to a partner in the partner's capacity as a partner or to the partner's transferee.
District Director (DD)
The head official of the USCIS offices in a certain district that may include several states. The DD has considerable discretion and power over certain types of applications and waivers, such as humanitarian parole or extended voluntary departure.
An element of subject matter jurisdiction in federal court that requires that there must be a diversity of citizenship between opposite parties in the case.
A green card lottery run by the Department of State where 100,000 people will be notified that they will be allowed to adjust status. However, only 50,000 visas are available.
A taxable distribution made to shareholders disbursed from a portion of the company's earnings; usually paid in cash, but may be paid in additional, newly issued shares.
These types of applications are often filed after you receive a "restriction requirement" in an office communication from the PTO. You file your non-elected inventions in separate divisional applications.
The abbreviation for and standard term used for deoxyribonucleic acid.
do not resuscitate order
A document signed by a patient's physician and by the patient or someone having the proper legal authority to act on his or her behalf that instructs medical personnel not to attempt resuscitation in the event the patient's heart or breathing cease.
A number that you create to identify your application.
Mark or actual stamp put on a deed that indicates the proper transfer tax has been paid.
documentary stamp tax
State tax on the transfer of an interest in real property.
doing business as (d/b/a)
When a business uses a name other than the name of the owner.
An adoption of a child born in the United States.
Persons other than spouses and relatives who live together and have a voluntary, committed relationship with each other.
Life partnership for those not permitted to marry.
domestic partnership agreement
A contract which may or may not be legally enforceable detailing the obligations and promises a life couple makes to each other.
The state of a person's main and permanent residence. This is more than mere residency. A person can have several residences, but only one domicile. Good proof of domicile in a particular state would be that you are registered to vote there, have a driver's license and car registration issued there, are employed or have your principal place of business there, and list that address on your income tax returns.
One who is the recipient of a donation.
(1) One who makes a donation. (2) A person who donates egg, sperm, or embryo for another to use.
Total amount of money paid by people to see a particular show.
A constitutional principle that prohibits a person from being tried twice for the same crime.
In a corporation, income is taxed at the corporate level and again as part of the personal income of shareholders to whom it is distributed as dividends.
There are two types of double-patenting. The first is based on U.S.C., Title 35, Sec. 101, which says that you are entitled to only a patent. This requirement has been interpreted by courts to mean that you cannot claim the same invention twice. You are not allowed, for example, to file a patent application for invention X and then several years down the road file a new patent application for invention X. A second type of double-patenting is a so called "judicial type," which prohibits you from not only claiming the same invention later, but also from claiming any inventions that are obvious from the one you previously claimed in a patent application.
The initial amount of money a buyer will pay for a property, in addition to the money from a mortgage.
The number of people who pay to see a show.
A place designated by the landlord in which tenants can deposit their rent at any hour of the day or night.
Person who acts as an agent for two people or entities.
Date mortgage payment is required.
(1) The process of gathering and confirming information about a company and its business, management, and financial affairs to determine its feasibility and level of risk for an investment. (2) The exercise of reasonable efforts to complete a task, such as discovering the proper address in an attempt to serve papers on the opposing spouse.
due on sale clause
Wording in a mortgage that gives the lender the right to demand full payment of the loan if the mortgaged property is sold.
Concept of fundamental fairness, such as the right to reasonable notice to present evidence and cross examine witnesses at a fair and impartial tribunal.
due process clause
A clause in the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that provides that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The Fourteenth Amendment also prohibits states from depriving any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.
A clause in a mortgage that requires that the mortgage be paid if the property is sold.
Normally filed where the original petition was lost or misplaced by the USCIS. In order to file the duplicate petition, one must have the original receipt number or a copy of the receipt notice in order to file the duplicate to the first filing.
durable power of attorney
A power of attorney that continues after the principal becomes incapacitated.
Some extraneous pressure that causes people to sell property cheaply (because they're facing foreclosure) or causes other people to pay an unusually high price (in order to avoid income taxes).
duty to defend
One of the two principal promises of the insurer under liability coverages. The insurer is obligated to defend suits against the insured seeking damages potentially covered by the policy. Under most policies the average person will purchase, the costs of defense are in addition to, and not included within the liability limits. In most cases, the insurer selects defense counsel.
duty to deliver possession to tenant
Once a rental agreement has been executed by landlord and tenant, the landlord has an obligation to allow the tenant to actually move into the dwelling. The landlord can be held responsible if the tenant is denied occupancy, even if it is not necessarily as a result of any action by the landlord.
duty to indemnify
The second principal promise of the insurer under liability coverages. The insurer is generally obligated to pay settlements or judgments when the facts proved show that the damages sought are actually within the policy's coverage.
duty to maintain fit premises
The landlord typically has an ongoing obligation to keep essential services, such as water and electricity, in good working order.
duty to mitigate
The obligation of the plaintiff to hold damages to a minimum. An example is a landlord's obligation to try to re-rent the property after a tenant moves out before the lease ends.
A home, apartment, mobile home, or other structure used as a sleeping place for one or more residents.
early neutral evaluation
Neutral party brought into a dispute to evaluate it for one or both sides to resolve the dispute before litigation is begun.
For unemployment insurance purposes, the rate used to compute an employer's contribution obligation based upon the employer's actual claims experience.
A significant amount of money that the potential buyer puts down with the offer to buy that shows that the potential buyer is serious about going through with the deal.
Right to use land owned by someone else for certain limited purposes, such as for party driveways, drainage, etc.
Loss in the value of real estate due to changes outside the particular property affected, e.g., a decline in the neighborhood or change in zoning.
effective filing date
This date can be critical for you to know to determine whether your invention is novel. It is also important in determining the date from when your patent term will run. The effective filing date of your application is usually the date on which you file your patent application. However, if you have filed previous applications before on your same application, your effective filing date will be the earliest U.S. filing date so long as you have made a claim of priority back to such earliest filed U.S. application.
efficient proximate cause
See concurrent causation
egg nuclear transfer
Cutting edge technology in which DNA is implanted into a human egg cell.
To go out.
A lawsuit to remove a person from real property.
The minimal portion of property that a state allows a surviving spouse to receive when the decedent leaves a will. The surviving spouse must choose or elect to take what he or she was left in the will, or to take the elective share. This generally comes into play when the decedent has left little in the will to the surviving spouse, so that he or she would receive more by taking the elective share.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
The federal law that regulates the interception of wire, electronic, and oral communications.
Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS)
The system for paying employment taxes and other federal taxes electronically.
electronic funds transfer (EFT)
The process by which money is transmitted electronically from one bank account to another.
For purposes of long-term care insurance, a period of time during which the insured person must pay out-of-pocket for long-term care expenses before insurance coverage will begin.
(1) The process by which a court makes one a legal adult even though the legal age has not been reached. (2) The age at which a parent is no longer responsible for the care of a child, usually because the child has reached the age of majority.
The main office for the U.S. government located in a friendly foreign country.
An egg fertilized with sperm that has begun to divide.
A process in which an embryo is donated to another couple or person and adoption-type procedures are followed, such as home studies and possible contact between the parties.
A donation to another couple or for use in research of an embryo created during ART.
Necessary repairs that cannot be predicted and require immediate attention.
The right of government to take private property for public use after the property owner is paid market value for the property.
The mental reaction (anguish, grief, fright) to another person's actions. It may only be recoverable as damages when it is accompanied by physical manifestations (nausea, vomiting, dizziness).
A person whose manner of work the employer has a right to control.
employee assistance plan (EAP)
A fringe benefit some employers offer, that may include short-term counseling, alcohol or drug abuse treatment, and similar services.
A handbook of rules, policies, procedures, and so on, issued by the employer for the guidance and information of employees.
Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA)
The EPPA prohibits employers from using lie detectors except in extremely limited circumstances.
Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
ERISA is the principal federal law regulating retirement plans and other employee benefit plans.
employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
An ESOP is a form of retirement plan in which the retirement fund holds stock of the employer company.
employee stock purchase plan
A plan for granting stock options to an employer's general workforce in proportion to their compensation.
employer identification number (EIN)
The taxpayer identification number a business will use for all the documents and tax returns that a business files with the IRS. A business must obtain it if it has one or more employees.
Employer Information Report (EEO-1)
The form filed annually with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission by employers who have 100 or more employees, and by certain government contractors to provide the EEOC with a breakdown of the workforce by sex, race, and national origin.
employment authorization document (EAD)
A photo identification card issued by the USCIS that evidences the holder's authorization to work in the U.S. and obtain a social security number.
An agreement that employment will last for a specific term and/or that the employment will only be terminated for cause or in accordance with specified procedures.
employment practices liability insurance (EPL insu
A relatively new form of coverage that protects employers from employment-related claims.
When all of an appellate court's judges sit in on an argument. It means "on the bench" or "full bench."
A statute requirement that demands your patent application teach one skilled in your art how to make and use your claimed invention.
A situation in which part of one piece of property unlawfully violates the rights of another piece of property.
Something that limits the ownership of a property, such as mortgage, liens, or easements.
A condition that is caused by injury, disease, or illness that has resulted in severe and permanent deterioration, indicated by incapacity and complete physical dependency, and for which, to a reasonable degree of medical certainty, treatment of the irreversible condition would be medically ineffective.
Association action in applying the penalty for violating its rules.
Report done by an engineer stating the physical condition of property.
entered without inspection (EWI, pronounced "eee-w
A person who entered the U.S. across the border from Mexico or Canada without being inspected by an immigration officer.
Depressed neighborhood, usually in an urban area, in which businesses are given tax incentives and are not subject to some government regulations. (These advantages are designed to attract new businesses into the particular area or zone.)
Someone who organizes a venture and accepts the risks in hopes of profit.
environmental impact statement (EIS)
Document required by many federal, state, and local environmental land use laws, containing an analysis of the impact that a proposed change may have on the environment of a specific geographic region.
A CD that has more than one song, but fewer than a full length CD.
Equal Access Law of 1984
Federal law that requires public schools that receive federal funding to allow student-led clubs in public high schools to organize and meet on school property and receive equal support as other clubs so long as the organization is a student-led, special interest, non-curriculum club must.
Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA)
Federal law that requires lenders and other creditors to make credit equally available without discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status, or receipt of income from public assistance programs.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
The EEOC is the principal enforcer of Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Equal Pay Act
See Fair Labor Standards Act.
A legal concept for how marital property is to be divided in a divorce, which seeks to divide property in a fair manner, after considering whatever factors are legally required to be considered in a particular state.
A financial interest in real property based on what a court deems is fair.
One party asking the court to prohibit the other party from doing something or mandating that the other party do something.
The ownership interest of the person entitled to ownership of real property.
(1) The preferred and common stock of a business. Also, it is frequently used to describe the amount of ownership of one person or a venture capitalist in a business. (2) Owner's interest in a property, usually determined by the value of the property less mortgage, liens or other encumbrances against it.
Buildup of an owner's interest in a property because of mortgage loan amortization or appreciation in its total value.
A scam usually perpetrated by buying property from an owner during the foreclosure process for a small amount of money, then renting the property until foreclosure is completed and the tenants are evicted by the new owner. The skimmer, also called a milker, does not turn over the rent to the lender, but keeps it for personal use. A less common type of skimming is when the mortgagor moves out, rents the property during foreclosure, and does not pay the rent to the lender but keeps it for personal use.
The science that studies the relationship between workers and their work environment.
errors and omissions insurance (E&O)
Protection against loss arising out of an alleged error or oversight on the part of an insured professional while performing prescribed duties.
(1) In some states, the procedure in which the closing of a property purchase and sale is finalized. (2) In purchasing real estate, a third party holds earnest money in escrow. The third party will deliver the escrow amount upon certain conditions, such as the purchase of the property.
Money paid by the mortgagor to the mortgagee in addition to principal and interest, so that the lender can pay taxes (and sometimes insurance) when due.
Person or organization that has legal responsibility to both the buyer and seller (or lender and borrower) to see that the terms of the purchase/sale (or loan) are carried out. (This person usually holds the escrow amounts.)
Periodic examination of escrow accounts to determine if current monthly deposits will provide sufficient funds to pay taxes, insurance, and other bills when due.
When the money is taken out of the escrow account.
Organization established to act as an escrow agent.
Three-party agreement between the buyer, seller, and the escrow agent, specifying the rights and duties of each.
escrow overage or shortage
Difference, determined by escrow analysis, between escrow funds on deposit and escrow funds required to make a payment when it becomes due.
Portion of a mortgagor's monthly payments held by a lender to pay taxes and insurance as they become due.
escrow transfer agreement
Document transferring escrow funds held by the lender to a third party upon transfer of property.
These include those services that are necessary to keep a dwelling habitable, such as water, heat, and electricity.
All property, real or personal, that a person owns.
Type of death tax based on the decedent's right to transfer property; not a tax on the property itself.
estimated budget range
Item in a budget which is not certain and an estimated amount is used generally based upon the amount in the prior budget and other pertinent considerations, such as possible increases or decreases in revenue and expense expectations
Quarterly taxes for businesses that expect to owe taxes of $1,000 or more.
A message to one's children or heirs in which you share your thoughts, advice, and wisdom.
Mediator who injects an opinion or evaluation into a mediation.
A court action to remove a tenant from real property.
Evidence can come in many different forms but typically it comes in the form of testimony, documents, and other physical exhibits.
evidence of title
Proof of ownership of property.
Hearing where evidence is used by the tribunal to make a decision of liability or fault such as an arbitration or trial.
examination of title
Review of the chain of title as revealed by an abstract of title or public record.
examination under oath
A loss settlement condition, usually in property policies. The policy give the insurer the right to demand an examination under oath of the insured, outside of the presence of any other insured. The insured must sign a transcript of the examination. The insurer may request that the insured produce documents and records at the examination under oath, even if the insured has previously provided the insurer with the same records. An insured's refusal to submit to an examination under oath after the insurer requests same furnishes the insurer with grounds to deny the claim.
examinations section or exams
The typical name for the section of the USCIS that interviews adjustment applications.
An exception to an exclusion restores coverage taken away by the exclusion. An exception to an exclusion cannot create coverage for a loss not covered by the insuring agreement of the policy.
excess benefit plan
An unfunded plan maintained by an employer solely to avoid the contribution and benefit limitations imposed on qualified plans by Section 415 of the Internal Revenue Code. Excess benefit plans are exempt from most provisions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act.
Excess policies apply upon the exhaustion of the limits of liability of underlying primary insurance. Exhaustion means that the full limits of the primary insurance have been paid for covered settlements or judgments against the insured. Umbrella policies are excess policies that provide gapfilling coverage. Coverage will apply to damages covered under the umbrella policy's insuring agreement that are not covered under underlying primary insurance, subject to the insured's retention (similar to a deductible).
excess lines broker
An intermediary to whom a retail agent or broker turns to obtain a policy from a nonadmitted or excess or surplus lines insurer. Under most states laws, an excess or surplus lines policy can be issued only upon proof that standard lines admitted insurers will not write a policy for the risk in question.
excess lines insurer
See admitted insurer.
Unreasonable or outrageous award of money by a jury that is subject to reduction by the court.
Additional tax imposed on the performance of an act, the engaging in an occupation, or the enjoyment of a privilege. Common term for any license fee or any tax, except income tax.
A policy provision that takes away a portion of coverage extended by a policy's insuring agreement. Under the law of most states, insurer drafted exclusions are narrowly construed and the insurer bears the burden of proving the application of an exclusion.
A rule of evidence that applies in criminal cases whereby evidence may be excluded if it was improperly obtained by the law enforcement authorities.
See closed listing.
exclusive right to sell
See closed listing.
To sign a legal document in the legally required manner, thereby making it valid and effective.
The act of signing a will by the testator and the witnesses.
Executive Office for Immigration Review (EOIR)
A separate agency from the USCIS within the Department of Justice that runs the immigration court.
Executive Order 11246
An executive order issued by President Lyndon Johnson in 1965 which, as amended, prohibits employment discrimination and requires affirmative action plans by most federal contractors and subcontractors.
A personal representative who is named in the decedent's will. In earlier times, a female executor was called an executrix. See also administrator and personal representative.
executor or executrix
A person appointed by the court, or by a will, to oversee distribution of the property of someone who has died with a will. Executor applies to a male, and executrix applies to a female.
Assets that are not considered when you apply for Medicaid.
An employee who is not covered by minimum wage and overtime requirements of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act (and the parallel provisions of state law) because he or she is employed in an executive, administrative, or professional capacity or falls within some other statutory exemption.
Property set aside by a state's laws that is exempt from attachment by creditors, to which a surviving spouse is entitled in addition to any other rights such as the intestate or elective share, homestead, and family allowance.
See decedent's trust.
A meeting between an employee and management immediately prior to termination of the employee.
Adjustment cases that are time-sensitive such as diversity visas, aging out (child about to turn 21), medical reasons, or other urgent reasons.
Costs incurred by the association for its operations.
Those witnesses whose special expertise is required regarding a matter of relevance to the trial. Doctors, engineers, accident reconstructionists, statisticians, economists, vocational specialists, nurses, etc. are all expert witnesses.
To use a creative work for commercial purposes.
A criminal record where the person's name has been deleted from the records of a particular state.
extension of status (EOS)
Where one applies for another term of status on the same type of nonimmigrant visa.
extension of time
You can buy these in packages of up to five months in order to extend the time that you need to reply to an office action from the PTO.
external legal issues
Legal conflicts which arise between the Community Association and outsiders.
The legal standard for different types of waivers, such as for unlawful presence or entry with a false passport. The hardship must be to a qualifying relative such as U.S. citizen or LPR parent or spouse.
Mediator who facilitates the conclusion of a mediation without expressing an opinion as to the mediation issues.
A professional who arranges adoptions.
Those witnesses who will testify concerning the facts of the accident.
Occurs when a financial institution buys a firm's accounts receivable (at a discount) and then collects the full value of the accounts from customers. Banks, through their Visa and Mastercard programs, do a form of factoring for merchants who accept their credit cards.
Fair Credit Billing Act
Law enacted to facilitate settlement of billing error disputes and to make credit card companies more responsible for the goods purchased by the cardholder.
Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)
Law that protects consumers through federal regulations on the total interest paid over the life of the loan and procedures to repair errors on a person's credit report.
fair employment practice agency (FEPA)
FEPAs, also known as deferral agencies, are state or local agencies that enforce equal employment laws comparable to federal law.
Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988
Expanded on the Federal Civil Rights Act of 1968 by prohibiting discrimination against the handicapped and families with children.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
The FLSA establishes minimum wages and overtime requirements and prohibits oppressive child labor. As amended by the Equal Pay Act, the FLSA also prohibits employers from paying different wages to males and females who do the same work.
fair market value (FMV)
The price that a willing buyer would pay a willing seller, with neither of them operating under duress.
Limited use of a copyrighted work which is allowed by law.
Mortgages, loans, and other financial assistance that is structured to the rules of a person's religion.
False Claims Act
A federal law that permits a whistleblower to file suit in the name of the U.S. Government against companies that have allegedly defrauded the Government.
Money or other property which a surviving spouse or children may keep in addition to other rights such as the intestate or elective share, homestead, and exempt property. It is designed to provide living expenses for a certain period of time, usually up to one year from the date of death.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
A federal law that allows up to twelve weeks of unpaid time off from work when you are dealing with your own medical conditions (such as fertility treatments) or caring for a family member, such as a newborn or adopted child.
A group of family members' of nursing home residents who meet to discuss issues and problems at the home.
Another name for a bypass trust.
The Federal National Mortgage Association. A major purchaser of loans in the secondary mortgage market.
Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)
Organization that provides loans specifically to farmers who are unable to find other financing.
Federal Arbitration Act (FAA)
The FAA provides for enforcement of arbitration agreements.
Federal Civil Rights Act of 1968
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or age.
Federal Employment Non-Discrimination Act
Federal law prohibiting discrimination in employment but does not include sexual orientation in its protected class of people.
Federal Equal Opportunity Credit Act
Federal law prohibiting discrimination in the extension of credit, but does not include sexual orientation in its protected class of people.
federal estate tax
Federal tax assessed against the assets of a person who has died if the value of the taxable assets exceeds 675,000.
Federal Fair Housing Act
Federal law providing protection from housing discrimination, but does not include sexual orientation in its protected class of people.
Federal Flood Insurance Program
A federal program that affords flood insurance policies to persons living in areas potentially subject to flood losses. Flood is a standard exclusion from property policies. Therefore, unless one has a policy from the Federal Flood Insurance Program, one will not have coverage for a flood loss. There is a 30-day waiting period after the date of application before a policy under the Federal Flood Insurance Program goes into effect.
Federal Funeral Rule
Federal law, enforced by the Federal Trade Commission, that requires that information regarding funeral pricing be accurate and itemized, and prohibits the provider of funeral services from making misrepresentations of the law and other harmful practices.
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)
See Freddie Mac.
Federal Housing Administration (FHA)
An agency of the United States government that, among other things, guarantees home loans.
Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA)
FICA imposes a tax on employers and an identical tax on employees to fund the social security system.
Federal Long-Term Care Insurance Program (FLTCIP)
A federal agency providing long-term care insurance to active and retired employees of the federal government, as well as certain members of their families.
Federal National Mortgage Association
See Fannie Mae.
Federal Parent Locator Service (FPLS)
A service operated by the federal Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE) within the Department of Health and Human Services that obtains address and employer information, as well as data on child support cases in every state, compares them, and returns matches to the appropriate states. This helps state and local child support enforcement agencies locate absentee parents so that custody, visitation, and child support can be determined and enforced.
federal per diem rates method
A method for reimbursing employees for business travel based on daily rates established by the federal government. The rates are divided into two groups, known as CONUS (continental U.S.) and OCONUS (outside continental U.S.).
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, among other duties, set interest rates for borrowing by banks. These rates have an effect on mortgage rates.
Federal Trade Commission
Governmental body that enforces laws on price fixing, false advertising, trade restraints, and other matters of commerce.
Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA)
FUTA imposes a tax on employers to finance the federal portion of the unemployment insurance program.
A contract between an attorney and client that spells out the terms of the legal representation.
fee simple deed
A legal instrument that conveys absolute ownership in a property.
Money charged by lenders and others involved in mortgage loan transactions, as distinguished from interest on the loan.
A crime for which a person may be imprisoned for more than a year.
Loan insured by the Federal Housing Administration.
Value established by the FHA as the basis for determining the maximum mortgage amount that may be insured on a specific property. (The FHA value is the sum of the appraised value of the property plus HUD and FHA's estimate of closing costs.)
A credit score calculation, developed by Fair Isaac & Co., that private credit bureaus use to indicate the likelihood that a person will pay his or her bills on time.
The name a person or business uses to conduct business with the public, but is not its actual, legal name.
A person who holds a special position of trust with respect to another person. Fiduciaries are required to act solely in the best interests of the persons for whom they hold the special trust position and not in their own self-interest.
Responsibility of the Board to exercise a high degree of care in acting for the financial benefit of the members rather than for themselves; also fiduciary responsibility.
Agreement based on trust in which one person or group of persons handles financial transactions for another or others.
See A number.
This is the date you get when you file your patent application containing your specification, at least one claim, and any required drawings. You do not need all components of a completed application to obtain a "filing date." When everything is complete, you will receive a "filing receipt."
The order of the court at the end of a trial or pursuant to a settlement agreement.
final order of removal (deportation)
An order to send a person out of the U.S. by the immigration judge that has not been appealed within the thirty-day period.
This is a second or subsequent office action which you may receive from your examiner which basically tells you that your examiner rejects your claims and wants to close your file. Your options after a final rejection become more limited.
Fees charged for borrowing money, often stated as a percentage.
Written steps and goals for financing a business.
Management of the day-to-day affairs of a Community Association's financial issues, such as whether or not certain revenue or expenses are within the budget.
financial power of attorney
A power of attorney giving the agent the power to act in financial matters, as opposed to health care matters.
A listing of a person's assets, liability, and net worth.
Until 1997, a card having fingerprints of an alien taken on it by a law enforcement entity or a credentialed private organization. USCIS took over the fingerprinting process to avoid fraud.
Required fingerprint check against FBI computer records prior to adjustment of status. Fingerprints must be taken within fifteen months prior to the date of adjustment or else the fingerprints will expire and have to be retaken.
fire and casualty damage
Damage caused by fire, flood, or other natural disasters that renders a dwelling uninhabitable. These do not include damages caused by the tenants themselves.
Lender's agreement to provide a mortgage loan.
The addition to the constitution that protects free speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of association.
For those who have multiple mortgages on a home, this one is the first in time. (First mortgages will be paid off first in a foreclosure.)
first party insurance
Insurance in which the insurer's obligation is to make payment to the insured, as opposed to someone who is not a party to the contract (policy). Common examples are the dwelling and personal property coverages, and collision and comprehensive coverages of an auto policy.
Procedures for regulating and verifying the financial activities.
The dates a business's accounting year begins and ends. It is often the same as the calendar year, but a business can choose any one-year cycle of dates that best suits it.
Costs that remain relatively stable.
fixed payment loan
Aloan that requires a level payment. Other terms of the loan may change.
A loan that will require the borrower to pay the same interest rate for the entire term.
Mortgage where the interest and the payment remain the same for the term of the loan.
A property requiring repair or remodeling to bring it to what is considered standard condition. The term is used in advertising to imply that the property is priced lower than similar properties in good condition.
Personal property that becomes part of the real estate, such as a shed attached to the garage or curtain rods bolted to the wall.
flexible payment mortgage
A loan that requires the payment to adjust at some time during the term to amortize the loan. The adjustment can cause a huge increase in the payment since there is no cap on the payment.
flexible spending arrangement or flexible spending
An employer-sponsored arrangement under which an employee can contribute pre-tax dollars to a special trust account and obtain reimbursement out of the account for uninsured medical expenses and/or dependent care expenses.
An arrangement under which employees may choose a work schedule different from the employer's normal work schedule, so long as the total hours worked per week meet the employer's minimum requirement.
See pledged account mortgage.
Insurance for losses due to water damage. (This may be required by the lender.)
Land that is subject to flooding when a stream or river is at flood stage.
Architectural drawings showing details of floor design and layout.
Occurs when the lender allows you to postpone or make temporary reductions in your payments.
Rights granted by state law to the surviving spouse to take a portion of the decedent's estate regardless of what the will may allow. Another term for the spouse's elective share.
A legal proceeding in which a property is taken from a debtor for failure to pay a loan.
Foreign Affairs Manual
The regulations that apply to consular officers in adjudicating immigrant or nonimmigrant visas.
foreign filing license
Your filing receipt, that you get back from the PTO after you file your patent application, will usually have the words "foreign filing license granted" on the form. A foreign filing license is a prerequisite before you file a foreign application for your invention, if your invention was made here in the U.S. If you fail to obtain this license before your foreign file, the consequence can be loss of patent rights here in the U.S.
Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPT
Federal law requiring aliens to pay taxes on profits and sales made in the U.S.
Danger of injury that could reasonably have been seen. The law expects the landlord to take reasonable steps to protect the safety of their tenants.
The procedure by which a decedent's estate is probated, usually when family or summary administration is not available.
A situation in which a child that is in the custody of the state is temporarily cared for by adults licensed by the state.
An adult who contracts with an agency to care for children who are in the custody of the state.
Purchase of a right to run an existing business that is part of a well-known chain of businesses. It usually includes the use of the business's name, marketing, policies, and other objects the public associates with this business.
Deliberate deception practiced to secure unlawful gain.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. A stockholder owned corporation, originally chartered by Congress, that buys mortgage loans in the secondary mortgage market.
The right to spend time with people of your own choosing.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Important law allowing anyone to obtain a copy of his or her file held at a governmental agency such as the USCIS.
Something of value, such as a promotion or pay raise, offered to an existing employee in exchange for the employee's signing a noncompetition agreement.
Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation Treaties (FCN
FCN treaties permit foreign companies doing business in the U.S. to engage, at their choice, high-level personnel essential to the functioning of the enterprise, effectively permitting them to discriminate in favor of their own nationals.
See housing to income ratio.
full faith and credit clause
A provision of the U.S. Constitution that requires each state to recognize the laws of every other state.
The total interest charged to the borrower for an adjustable rate loan once the start rate ends. It includes the interest rate of the index and the margin.
Conduct by one to others that is in keeping with the simple and basic ideas of what is fair treatment.
A right guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution.
Money awarded for additional medical treatment, future pain and suffering or loss of earning capacity.
Interest in property that cannot be possessed or enjoyed until a specified period of time passes or a future event (for example, a 21st birthday) occurs.
Attorney appearance form. Blue form that must accompany any immigration application in order for an attorney to be officially entered as attorney of record and to receive copies of correspondence.
Detailed biographic information form that is required with an adjustment of status application and other petitions. One of the copies is sent to the embassy in the native country and another is sent to the CIA to perform records checks. Required for all adjustment applicants fourteen years of age and over.
An egg or sperm cell.
gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
A technique in which eggs are placed into the intended mother's fallopian tubes with large numbers of sperm.
See bridge loan.
A temporary loan to supply needed money before a sale or longer term financing can be completed. It is arranged quickly, easy to get, and expensive.
To order a third party to turn over to a creditor any property that is being held for a debtor.
A legal action to withhold wages or other assets for payment of a debt.
gay straight alliance (GSA)
School support group of children of GLBT families or gay teens.
gender identity disorder (GID)
A classification by the American Psychiatric Association of transgender individuals.
A general agent is a much different concept than that of a retail agent. In the property/casualty context, some insurers contract with general agents to perform underwriting and claims functions rather than to hire their own employees to perform the underwriting and claims functions. In other circumstances, insurers contract with general agents to perform underwriting functions only, commonly for limited classes of business, such as restaurant policy programs. In the life insurance context, insurers sometimes contract with general agents to be their exclusive marketing channel for the insurer's products. In order to sell that company's products, an agent must be a subagent of the general agent.
Party that performs or supervises the construction or development of a property. The general contractor may use his or her own employees for this work or the services of other contractors (subcontractors).
general duty clause
The Occupational Safety and Health Act requirement that every employer furnish its employees with employment and a place of employment free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm.
An employer who transfers an employee to another employer (called the special employer) for a limited period of time. While the transfer is in effect, the special employer has temporary responsibility and control over the employee's work.
Upkeep that can be anticipated and performed on a regular basis or that is minor in nature.
A partner who shares ownership and has full liability for the debts of the business.
A business that is owned by two or more persons.
general power of attorney
A power of attorney that gives the agent very broad powers, generally to conduct all kinds of business on behalf of the principal.
A legal writing setting forth the terms of the settlement. It prevents the plaintiff from seeking further legal redress.
general warranty deed
See warranty deed.
Trust designed to skip one generation of estate taxes because the trust leaves the principal to the grantor's grandchildren, not the grantor's children.
genetic (DNA) testing
The analysis of blood or saliva to obtain genetic information that can identify the parents of a child.
A particular type of music; rock or country, for example.
geriatric care manager
A professional service provider who assists in long-term care planning by seeking suitable facilities for the elderly.
The intended mother's egg is implanted into the surrogate with the intended father's sperm to conceive a child. The surrogate has no biological relationship with the child.
Old term for a VA guaranteed mortgage loan.
Voluntary lifetime or at-death transfer of property, made without compensation.
A letter from one who is giving money to a buyer for part of the down payment. The letter must state that the money need not be repaid.
Tax on lifetime transfers of property given without consideration or for less consideration than the property is worth.
The Government National Mortgage Association. A government agency that guarantees payment to those who buy certain types of mortgage backed securities.
The invisible barrier to advancement sometimes faced by women and minorities.
The actions taken to achieve a business purpose.
Payments promised to key personnel in the event of a change in ownership or control of a company.
In accounting, the monetary value placed on the good reputation of a business. It is considered an asset of the business. Typically, an organization that has been in business for a number of years and enjoys a good reputation among its customers has more good will value than a new company.
Set of legal papers, filed by a developer with the appropriate local government office, that submit land to use for, create and govern a Community Association.
Mortgages insured or guaranteed by the government.
Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)
See Ginnie Mae.
(1) The time between when the billing cycle closes and the date you have to pay the balance by to avoid any finance charges. (2) Time allowed to get something done.
Student loan payments that begin low and increase over time, often beginning with interest-only payments.
graduated payment mortgage
A mortgage loan that begins with a low monthly payment that gradually increases to an amount necessary to amortize the loan over the term. Its purpose is to help buyers who expect future income to increase.
Amendment to a governing document that changes rights or restrictions while preserving an owner's rights who relied on the documents at the time of purchase.
A person who received property from another.
A person who transfers property to another.
Living trust in which the grantor maintains enough control over the assets so that the trust income received is taxed to the grantor, not to the trust or to the trust's beneficiaries.
green card holder
See lawful permanent resident.
green card number
See A number.
green card stamp
Refers to the temporary stamp placed by a USCIS officer into a person's passport signifying his or her adjustment of status.
Property owned by a decedent at death. Value before debts are paid.
Sales less cost of goods sold.
gross monthly income
Income received each month from every source before taxes deductions for employer incentive savings program 401(k).
Water that is present in the subsoil.
growing equity mortgage (GEM)
Graduated payment mortgage in which increases in a borrower's mortgage payments are used to accelerate reduction of principal on the mortgage.
guaranteed insurability rider
Addition to a life insurance policy that allows you to purchase more insurance without going through medical history or exams.
guaranteed issue life insurance
Life insurance that is offered regardless of a person's risk of death.
Loan that a government agency assures the lender will be paid back even if the borrower defaults.
Person who is also liable for another's debt or performance.
Agreeing to be liable for the debt of another.
A person appointed by the court to handle property and personal matters for another individual.
guardian ad litem
The person, usually an attorney, appointed by the court to watch out for the best interests of the child during the court case.
guardian of the person
A person who is authorized by a court, pursuant to a guardianship proceeding, to make decisions regarding the care of another person.
guardian of the property
A person who is authorized by a court, pursuant to a guardianship proceeding, to handle the financial affairs of another person.
(1) A legal proceeding to determine whether a person is legally incompetent and should have a guardian appointed to care for the person or the person's financial matters. (2) The legal relationship between a guardian and a ward.
The most popular temporary nonimmigrant visa, issued for a maximum of six years; most professional positions normally qualify; a job offer is required before you can apply.
A condition fit for human occupancy. A landlord has a duty to have the rental unit fit for the tenant to live in, such as having heat and working plumbing. This is a minimum standard required by law. The standard agreed to by the parties may be much higher.
Sometimes called a fluctuating workweek plan, an exception to the Fair Labor Standards Act's general overtime rules that allows an employer to pay only half-time, instead of time and a half, for overtime worked by nonexempt employees. The exception only applies where the employee's workweek fluctuates and where the employer has entered into an agreement to pay a fixed salary to cover the straight time component of all time worked in a workweek.
Term with no set definition by the real estate industry; usually refers to a home that needs maintenance.
A form of discrimination involving conduct that has the purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with a person's work performance or that creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.
hard money mortgage
1. A mortgage loan with interest and fees much higher than market rates and fees. It allows borrowing by those who cannot get a loan elsewhere because of severe credit or debt problems. 2. A mortgage loan that is not used to purchase property.
Insurance against specific losses.
Within the scope of residential housing, lead-based paint and asbestos are two of the hazardous conditions for which to watch. Tenants should contact the landlord immediately if there is any sign of danger from these hazardous conditions.
A brief summary of a legal rule or significant fact in a case.
health care advance directive
The term used in some states for a health care power of attorney.
health care directive
A document indicating choices you have made about your own health care and/or appointing someone to make medical decisions for you, should you be unable to.
health care power of attorney
A specific type of power of attorney that gives your agent (usually a family member or close friend) the authority to make decisions about your medical treatment. You may also see this referred to as a durable power of attorney for health care, health care proxy, designation of health care surrogate, advance health care directive, or some similar name.
health care proxy
A type of advance medical directive executed by a person that makes another person his or her agent for the purpose of making health-care decisions on his or her behalf, in the event he or she becomes incapacitated and is unable to make such decisions on his or her own.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Ac
A federal law that makes medical record confidential and imposes requirements on group health plans to make it easier for employees who change jobs to be eligible for full coverage under their new employer's plan.
health reimbursement arrangement (HRA)
An employer-funded health insurance plan, often paired with a high-deductible group health insurance policy used to reimburse employees for uninsured medical expenses.
A document giving someone else the power to make medical decisions for you or directing what kind of care you are willing accept.
A legal document giving someone else the authority to make health-care decisions for you if you are unable to do so for yourself.
Examination, usually informal, of an accused person.
An out of court statement that is offered for its truth value.
heating, ventilation, air-conditioning system (HVA
The unit regulating the even distribution of heat and fresh air throughout a building.
Person who inherits the property of a person who died.
A problem with the title that is not apparent in public records. (Examples of hidden defects are unknown heirs, secret marriages, forged instruments, mental incompetence, or infancy of a grantor.)
A term used when a licensing agreement resembles a franchise agreement too closely, resulting in additional legal hurdles associated with franchises.
holder in due course
One who buys a negotiable instrument, such as a mortgage note. The buyer gets certain legal protections greater than the originator of the loan. To become a holder in due course, procedures described in the Uniform Commercial Code must be followed.
A will wherein the essential terms are all in the handwriting of the testator. Although the will must be signed by the testator, the signature need not be at the end of the document, and the will need not be witnessed by any other persons. This type of will is valid in most states.
The amount of ownership that a person has paid into his or her home. Usually expressed as how much mortgage principal has been paid.
Home Equity Conversion Mortgage Program (HECM)
A federally-insured reverse mortgage program by which a senior (aged 62 years and older) may receive a loan for long-term care expenses based on the equity in the senior's home.
home equity line of credit
A mortgage loan that allows the borrower to draw money to a maximum amount at any time during the term. Interest is paid only on the amount borrowed. The money may be repaid and borrowed again at any time during the term. It is a revolving loan, similar to a credit card loan.
home equity line of credit loan
Open-end loan, usually recorded as a second mortgage, that permits borrowers to obtain cash advances based on an approved line of credit; home is used as collateral.
home equity loan
A loan not used to purchase property. It is usually secured by a second mortgage and covers the equity between the first mortgage and the property value.
home health care
A lifestyle option for a senior, wherein assistance with daily living activities, as well as any necessary medical care, is provided by a health-care aide in the senior's home, allowing the senior to maintain his or her own residence rather than relocating to an assisted living or nursing facility.
home health-care aide
A worker trained to assist people with bathing, meal preparation, and household tasks.
home improvement loan
Mortgage to finance an addition to or rehabilitation of a residence.
Done by a professional to evaluate structural and mechanical condition of a property.
home keeper mortgage
The name given to the Fannie Mae version of a reverse mortgage.
Mortgage loan secured by a real property.
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA)
Federal legislation that requires certain types of lenders to compile and disclose data on where their mortgage and home improvement loans are being made.
A process through which a licensed social worker meets with prospective adoptive parents and evaluates their lifestyle and home for its appropriateness to house a child.
Insures a new home against major structural damage for a set period of time, usually ten years.
An organization of homeowners whose major purpose is to maintain and provide for the rights of owners.
Insurance policy that protects the owners and the mortgage holder from loss.
Real property where an individual or married couple had their primary residence. This is used in some states that give special rights and protection to such property against the claims of creditors or for property tax purposes. In probate law, many states allow the surviving spouse certain rights in homestead property which cannot be given away to others by a will.
In some states, a legal exemption that prohibits the attachment, lien, or sale of owner-occupied properties to pay the claims of creditors.
Care provided for the terminally ill, focusing on pain relief and emotional support for the patient, as well as bereavement assistance for the surviving family members.
A work environment made offensive by harassment.
Guidelines related to day-to-day conduct in common areas and relationships between unit owners.
Determined by upkeep of the home, upgrades made to the home, the neighborhood, and the economy.
Used in the housing-to-income ratio; includes monthly loan payment, real estate taxes, and insurance.
housing expense ratio
See debt-to-income ratio.
Housing Finance Agency (HFA)
- State or local agency responsible for the financing of housing and the administration of subsidized housing programs.
Number of residential units actually under construction. (This is a key economic indicator and is used in analyzing real estate and mortgage trends.)
Total mortgage payment is divided by a person's gross monthly income to arrive at a ratio.
The Department of Housing and Urban Development. FHA is one of its many departments.
HUD-1 Uniform Settlement Statement
Standard form used to disclose costs at closing. All charges imposed in the transaction, including mortgage broker fees, must be disclosed separately.
human resources (HR)
Formerly called Personnel Department.
One is paroled into the U.S. for humanitarian reasons such as medical or for young children to reside with parents even if there is not a visa number available.
Real estate term for heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.
hybrid mortgage loan
A mortgage loan that contains both fixed and adjustable periods during the term.
Providing a person with water through a feeding (gastrointestinal), or an intravenous, tube.
To put up property as collateral security without the physical delivery of the property, as is done with a mortgage loan. When the property is physically held by the lender as security, it is pledged.
Visa petition form used for a family-sponsored immediate member or preference category.
Visa petition form used for an employment-based preference category.
See bag and baggage letter.
Form issued by a school when a foreign student has enrolled and paid tuition.
Form needed to waive the effect of a removal or deportation order.
I-485 Supplement A
Form filed by those eligible for mini-amnesty. You can only file it during certain times and you must be eligible. It is required by one who entered the country without documentation or who is out of status and is filing adjustment through a preference visa petition.
See green card stamp.
Work permit application.
Also called a receipt notice or approval notice of action issued by a service center in regard to an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa application.
See affidavit of support.
The form employers must complete and maintain for each employee as a record that the employee is eligible to work in the U.S.
Small white card stapled into one's passport upon admission into the U.S. on a nonimmigrant visa. It contains the date of expiration of the nonimmigrant visa.
Abbreviation that stands for "in trust for." This is a way to keep bank accounts out of an estate.
Taking on another person's persona for illegal purposes. Usually includes the use of Social Security numbers, credit card information, and other confidential details.
One who is in the U.S. out of status or who entered without inspection.
The impression the public has of a business's product, service, and business.
Spouse, parent, or child (under the age of 21) of a U.S. citizen. However, adopted children must have been adopted before the age of 16 and stepchildren before the age of 18.
Someone who has become a lawful permanent resident.
immigrant home buyers
Those who are not native to the United States.
immigrant visa (IV)
Used when applying for permanent residence at an embassy or consulate.
immigrant visa packet
After the alien has been approved at an embassy or consulate, he or she is given a packet to present upon arrival for inspection in the U.S. This packet must be presented to the USCIS officer for ADIT processing.
Process through which people legally enter the United States and get permission to remain.
Immigration Act of 1990
Federal law updating the United States immigration policies with a significant change in the number of work visas allowed per year.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
Agency that comprises the interior enforcement side of the former INS. It is part of the new Department of Homeland Security. For example, deportation officers are now part of this bureau.
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 (INA)
The starting point of current immigration law; all immigration laws passed since then are amendments to the INA.
Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)
The previous name of the department whose duties are now split into several parts in order to separate the benefits functions (USCIS) from the enforcement (BICE), among others; all of which are now part of the new Department of Homeland Security.
immigration court (EOIR)
See Executive Office for Immigration Review.
Immigration Judge (IJ)
An administrative law judge who is an employee of the Department of Justice.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)
An amendment to the Immigration and Nationality Act. IRCA prohibits employers from hiring aliens who are ineligible to work in the U.S. IRCA also prohibits discrimination against noncitizens.
Rule that says that governments cannot be sued unless they pass a law that allows the particular type of lawsuit.
impaired risk life insurance
Life insurance for people with a higher risk of death
Authority of an agent implied by his or her position, even if there is no actual authority. If a building manager, for example, collects rent against the wishes of the owner, but the owner has not informed the tenant that the manager has no authority to do this, the tenant is not responsible for any loss suffered by the owner if the manager keeps the money.
Certain provisions will be implied to the lease, even though they are not specifically written. Examples include the warranty of habitability, which requires a landlord to provide a minimum level of habitability for the tenant.
A guarantee that the law makes a seller provide even though not in writing.
That portion of the monthly mortgage payment that is held in escrow by the lender to pay for taxes and insurance.
See escrow account.
Land that already has utilities, streets, sewers, or other improvements.
Term used to describe the value of goods or services received that is added to an employee's income for tax purposes. Seen in situations where one partner receives benefits from the other partner's employer (insurance or other fringe benefits). The IRS requires the value of the benefits received be added to the employee's gross income.
in vitro fertilization (IVF)
When an egg is fertilized with sperm in a laboratory.
in vitro maturation
A process that allows eggs to mature in a lab instead of inside a woman.
Jury award that does not fairly compensate the plaintiff for the injuries and losses proved. The court's remedy may be to award a new trial.
Any one of a number of grounds, such as criminal acts or medical conditions, that cause an alien not to be admitted to the U.S.
One who is unable to manage his or her own affairs either temporarily or permanently.
Agreement between public officials and private developers whereby developers are offered an incentive to build a desired public improvement.
Use of a copyrighted work in the background of another work in which it is unimportant to the context.
All financial gains from investments, work or business.
Beneficiary of a trust who receives only the income generated by the trust assets.
Income restrictions established for people to qualify for the low- to moderate-income subsidized housing programs.
Property such as an apartment building, a condominium, or a house that is rented for money.
Transferring income from one person to another in a lower income tax bracket.
Charge levied by the federal government against taxable income or an individual or corporation.
The process by which an employer automatically deducts child support from income or wages. Income withholding is often incorporated into the child support agreement or order and may be voluntary or mandatory.
Money spent each year on expenses that does not exceed annual income.
Student loan payments that are determined by income, going up or down as your income does.
The comparison of a prospective borrower's income to debt expressed as a percentage. The top ratio is the comparison of the income to PITI monthly mortgage costs. The bottom ratio is the comparison of income to total monthly debt payments.
Qualifying ratio used in underwriting a residential mortgage loan that computes the percentage of monthly income required to meet the monthly housing expense.
incompetent, incompetence, or incompetency
A person is incompetent if he or she has been judicially determined to lack the capacity to manage at least some of his or her property or to meet at least some of the essential health and safety requirements of such person. This can be a little confusing, because some state laws use the word incapacity. In this book, however, the word incapacity is used when there has not been a legal determination, and the word incompetency is used when there has been such a determination.
An application lacking some of the essential parts and not accepted for filing by the PTO.
Instead of reciting all the information contained in a reference that you want to include in your specification, you are allowed to incorporate various types of references into your specification. The material which you incorporate-by-reference becomes as much a part of your specification as if you had written the material directly into your specification.
A violation of a contract that is so severe the landlord simply wants the tenant out of the residence.
Condition, usually contractual, of being protected against possible damage, loss or suit.
A type of health insurance plan in which the plan participant chooses his or her own health care provider, and the insurer pays the provider directly or reimburses the participant according to a formula or schedule specified in the plan.
An adoption in which the adoptive parent locates the child or birth mother instead of having an agency do so.
A person who works from him- or herself, rather than as an employee.
independent living community
A community that typically is limited to those above a certain age (for example, the resident or spouse must be over the age of 55), with residents maintaining their own homes or apartments. The community provides no health care, but in some cases there is an activities staff to facilitate social interaction among the members of the community.
independent medical examination
Term used by the insurance industry for medical examinations conducted by doctors paid by the insurance company to examine the plaintiff. IME's are performed strictly for litigation purposes. They are anything but "independent".
A rate used to compute the index on adjustable-rate mortgages.
Index to Legal Periodicals
A guide to law reviews and legal periodicals.
Indian Child Welfare Act
A federal law specifying that a Native American child must be placed with relatives, within the tribe, or with other Native Americans before other options are considered.
Record label other than a major label, shorthand for independent label.
Type of hearing before the immigration court where the alien actually puts on his or her case over a one to three hour time period.
Ovulation that is induced by medication.
A number assigned to each type of business.
A legal doctrine, adopted in a few states, permitting a court to enjoin a former employee from working for a competitor when the former employee has confidential information, and when the old and new jobs are so similar that disclosure of the confidential information is inevitable.
Increase in the general price level of goods and services.
information disclosure statement (IDS)
You fulfill your duty to let the PTO know about anything material to the patentability of your invention by completing an IDS. If you neglect to fulfill this duty, your any patent which you later obtain may be held unenforceable.
Piece of paper real estate agents possess containing the details of a home.
Agreeing to treatment after being apprise of all the risks and benefits. Informed consent is required before any medical procedure can be done.
Basic public improvements such as roads, sewers, water, drainage, and other utilities that are necessary to prepare raw land for buildings and future development.
Violation of the rights of another.
Legal term for to go in.
ingress and egress
The right to enter and exit a piece of property by legal means.
Tax imposed on property received by beneficiaries from the estate of a decedent.
A remedy to prevent a person from doing something, rather than collecting damages for the harm caused. If you want the factory next to your building to stop emitting noxious fumes, you could sue for an injunction to make it stop.
Court order which grants a petition for the mandate for or prohibition against conduct or acts of a person or entity.
A process of inserting sperm into a woman's body or into eggs in a laboratory to achieve conception.
The accumulation of tax-exempt income within a deferred compensation plan.
Buying or selling publicly-traded securities using information that is generally not available to the public. Insider trading is illegal under federal and state laws.
Being without enough assets of income to pay debts.
(1) The act of having a professional inspector look at a property and complete a report on the positives and negatives of that property. (2) To be inspected by an immigration officer at an airport, or border, or on a ship. The officer will check to see that all documents are in order. The officer may admit, send the alien back, or refer the alien to deferred admission.
Person hired to complete a thorough examination of the house on behalf of the buyer; credentials certified by major home inspection associations.
Loan that is repaid in equal payments over a particular time period, such as a mortgage or car loan.
instant sale contract
Any type of business entity (e.g., corporation, partnership, limited liability company), organization, or other entity other than an individual person.
A legal term for a document.
Stake that a borrower, lender, or owner must have in real property in order to be able to get insurance against loss of that stake.
Title to a property for which a title insurance company has agreed to issue a policy.
Protective measure that shifts risk of financial loss due to certain perils to an insurance company in return for payment of premiums.
The insurance employee who handles some or all aspects of the investigation, negotiations and settlement of the claim.
Representative of an insurance company, licensed by the state, who negotiates and effects insurance contracts and services policyholders.
A document written by an insurance company that states that temporary insurance is in effect. (This is required at a closing to prove that the buyer has contacted the insurance company and they will provide insurance coverage.)
Supervisors of the insurance business conducted in a state.
One who shops around with many insurers as the agent of the insured.
Sum of money demanded for a loss in accordance with the terms of an insurance policy.
The amount of money you pay to buy the insurance policy and coverage.
Trust that owns and manages a life insurance policy and designates its beneficiaries.
One covered by insurance; a policyholder.
insured closing letter
Document issued by a title insurance company that protects a mortgagee against embezzlement or failure to follow specific closing instructions.
One who provides insurance; an insurance company.
The insuring agreement, or coverage grant, of a policy or coverage, states the basic scope of coverage. Exclusions then limit or subtract from the general statement of coverage of the insuring agreement. Insuring agreements are generally broadly construed, and the insured bears the burden of proof that his or her claim comes within the basic scope of coverage of the insuring agreement. If a claim does not come within the insuring agreement, there is no need to consider exclusions.
intangible personal property tax
An annual tax on a person's stock, bonds and other items of intangible personal property.
Property that has no intrinsic or marketable value in and of itself, but is merely the evidence of value, such as promissory notes, stock certificates, or certificates of deposits (as distinguished from land, furniture, and equipment).
Legal rights to the products of the mind, such as writings, musical compositions, formulas, and designs.
Those acts that are deliberately done. Intentional wrongdoing is generally considered more serious than carelessness (negligence) or acts for which one is strictly liable.
Harm inflicted as the result of intentional conduct, as opposed to negligent conduct. An example are the injuries suffered in an assault and battery.
During one's lifetime.
inter vivos trust
See living trust.
When one or more words are inserted between the lines or on the margin of a document such as a will.
A trust created during lifetime (instead of created at someone's death via their will). Generally the trust is for the benefit of the person who creates the trust, but it becomes irrevocable upon the death of the person who creates the trust. The term means the same as living trust.
(1) A percentage of the balance that is charged by the creditor as a fee for borrowing the money or a percentage you earn on money you have saved. (2) A right in property. It may be the right of an owner, the right to occupy as a tenant, or some lesser right as to travel across the property (easement right).
interest only mortgage loan
A loan requiring the borrower to make monthly payments covering only the interest on the loan and requiring a lump-sum principal payment called a balloon. Principal reduction is on a voluntary basis until the term ends.
Percentage paid for the use of money, usually expressed as an annual percentage.
interest rate cap
Limit on interest rate increases and/or decreases during each interest rate adjustment (adjustment period cap) or over the term (life cap) of the mortgage.
An account earning money simply for being in the account. Some money held by a landlord, such as security deposits, may be placed in such accounts.
An individual who may have a claim against the decedent's estate, or an interest in the outcome or distribution.
Financing used from the beginning of a project to the closing of a permanent loan; usually found in a construction or development loan.
internal legal issues
Legal conflicts which arise between owners or owner and the Community Association.
Internal Revenue Code (IRC)
The set of laws passed by Congress regarding tax related matters.
Internal Revenue Service (IRS)
Branch of the U.S. Treasury Department responsible for administering the Internal Revenue Code and providing taxpayer education.
An adoption of a child born in another country.
Connection of computers allowing for an exchange of information. Also known as the Information Superhighway.
Internet service provider
An internet host. A host is necessary to gain access to the internet. Often charges a fee for access. Also know as an ISP.
One type of formal discovery in which questions are sent in writing to the opposing party and must be answered under oath.
An appearance before your examiner for purposes of advancing your application towards allowance.
Dying without leaving a will.
The amount of property an heir receives from the estate of a person who died without a will.
The distribution of a decedent's property to the decedent's heirs when there is either no will, or the will fails to dispose of the property.
intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
An injection into an egg of a single sperm, also called microinsemination.
intrauterine insemination (IUI)
A superovualtion is induced and a large number of sperm is inserted into the uterus.
The person who has made any contribution to the conception of your claimed invention.
(1) The portion of a financial statement that reflects the value of a business' raw materials, works-in-progress, and finished products. (2) List of estate assets and liabilities.
Staffed by ICE officers who are allowed to carry weapons, have arrest authority, and do investigations on fraudulent marriages, fraudulent businesses, alien smugglers, fraudulent documents and aliens involved in criminal and gang activities.
Outlay of money to realize income or profit in the future.
An attachment to the periodical financial summaries of operations that indicates the amount of investments held, the institution where invested, the rate of interest and the maturity date where applicable.
A person who has an express or implied right to be on the premises, such as a business associate or a restaurant patron. The owner of the premises has a duty to inspect the premises, and warn the invitee if there are any dangerous conditions.
Slavery or other forms of compulsory work, prohibited by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution and federal law.
IRC 529 college plan
State-run college education programs permitted by the Internal Revenue Code wherein accounts can be funded by persons for the higher educational benefit of others they select. These programs have substantial federal income tax advantages when the account assets are used for higher educational expenses.
A legal way of saying that a marriage is broken and can't be repaired.
Trust that cannot be changed or canceled after it is created.
Product of special state laws to provide for water services to property owners. These districts have the power to tax, borrow, and condemn.
See internet service provider.
Legal term to describe the lineal descendants of a person. Your issue would be your children, your grandchildren, your great-grandchildren, etc.
A fee which you must pay after your application is allowed in order for you to be issued a patent. This fee is due three months from the date of your notice of allowance.
An entity, usually a corporation, that has the ability to issue and distribute securities.
Legal process by which two separate lawsuits are joined together into one litigation.
An account that is equally owned by two people.
joint and several liability
A legal principle, which holds that tenants may be both individually and collectively liable for any amounts owed to the landlord.
A equal co-owner of an annuity.
This may include legal or physical custody situations where the parties share the responsibility for their child(ren) pursuant to court order or judgment.
joint legal custody
Where custody of a child is held equally by both parents regardless of where the child actually physically resides. This gives the parent with whom the child does not primarily resides full decision making authority over matters concerning the child.
joint physical custody
This is one of two types of custody. A parent who has physical custody lives most of the time with the child and makes daily care decisions during that time. See also joint legal custody.
Property owned by a husband and wife together.
A type of property ownership by two or more persons. If one owner dies, his interest in the property goes to the surviving owner or owners. Some states may require the ownership document to include the phrase "as joint tenants with rights of survivorship."
joint tenancy with right of survivorship
Form of ownership in which property is equally shared by all owners and is automatically transferred to the surviving owners when one of them dies.
A method of property ownership. If a joint tenant sells their share to someone else, it destroys the joint tenancy and turns it into a tenancy in common. If a joint tenant dies, his share is split equally among the surviving joint tenants.
Copyrightable work made by two or more persons.
Property held in the name of more than one person in equal portions.
A formal decision of a court. This may also be called a decree.
A person who owes money, the amount of which has been decided by the court in the form of a judgment.
Someone who has little or no assets so that a judgment against them has little effect since there is nothing that can be taken.
Foreclosure proceeding used in some states that is handled as a civil lawsuit.
A mortgage loan above the limits of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. It is a nonconforming loan.
A lien that is subordinate to another lien. A junior lien will be paid only after any liens above it are satisfied.
A mortgage in a secondary or lesser position than a first mortgage.
Legal authority of a court to preside over a case.
A legal and lawful reason to bring a legal action.
A method of linking cases on the same point and so you can search legal issues by concepts (only West Publishing has key numbers).
Improper payment in cash, goods or services to one who holds an official position in order to influence that person improperly.
An adoption of a child that is a relative.
An agreement outlining contact that birth parents and other relatives will have with a child that has been adopted.
An approved labor certification is a requirement for some employment-based adjustment applications. It is an actual recruitment of U.S. workers, under the supervision of the Department of Labor and a state employment security agency in order to establish that there is no U.S. worker who is ready, willing, and able to take the position offered to an alien.
labor condition application (LCA)
The first stage of a nonimmigrant H-1B petition; an LCA has nothing to do with a labor certification application.
An organization committed to achieving full recognition of the civil rights of GLBT members and people with HIV or AIDS through impact litigation, education, and public policy work.
land development loan
Loan for the acquisition of land to be held in anticipation of zoning, until plans are drawn and construction financing can be obtained.
Where local government ordinances dictate permitted land use.
The party that rents a dwelling to a tenant.
That portion of Real Property Law dealing with the legal relationship between an owner of property (landlord) and one who rents the property (tenant).
Used as an activity, to plant foliage and ground cover around a house. As a description on real estate, describes the ground cover, trees, shrubs, and other foliage that is planted around a home.
last chance contract
An agreement between an employer and an employee that gives the employee a final opportunity to conform to company requirements or else be fired.
Those illegal aliens that missed the 1988 deadline for amnesty applications and became part of several class-actions lawsuits against the USCIS such as LULAC or CSS. (Most late amnesty class members had a deadline of June 2002 to file for adjustment of status.)
Financial penalty for making a debt payment past the due date.
Journals published by law schools.
lawful permanent resident (LPR)
The most correct term for someone who has adjusted status through an immigrant visa.
A contract between a landlord and a tenant setting forth the rights and duties agreed to by each. It differs from a rental agreement in that it has a definite termination date.
lease-purchase mortgage loans
See rent with an option to buy.
An agreement to rent a piece of property to someone who also obtains the right to buy the property during or after the term of the lease.
A gift of personal property in a will.
Custody which grants a parent the right to make ultimate decisions regarding matters concerning his or her child.
Description of the property that is recorded in public records. (A professional surveyor usually does this.)
This is the structure of the business in the eyes of the law. It could be a corporation, partnership, or sole proprietorship.
Responsibility of the Board to engage outside legal counsel to advise it on legal matters.
A parent who is considered to be a child's parent in the eyes of the law.
Law-related journals and newsletters that are not classified as law reviews.
An entity recognized by the state as a person apart from its members.
Legal relief typically involves the award of some money damages in the form of a money judgment against the defendant.
legal risk placement
A placement of a foster care child who may need to be reunited with his or her parents.
The name in which real estate ownership is registered.
The former process whereby aliens through the 1986 amnesty were first granted temporary residency then permanent residence.
A CD-ROM method for locating law reviews and legal periodicals.
A person who is left personal property in another person's will.
Bank or financial institution that lends money to buyers.
lender paid mortgage insurance
Mortgage insurance program that allows the lender to collect a higher interest rate from the borrower and forward the excess interest to the mortgage insurance company to pay for the mortgage insurance.
One who rents property from another.
One who rents property to another.
letter of credit
Letter authorizing a person or company to draw on a bank or stating that the bank will honor their credit up to the stated amount.
letter of intent
Letter stating that a buyer or developer is interested in a property.
letters of administration
Document signed by the court giving an individual authorization to act on behalf of the estate.
A collection, seizure, or assessment.
An on-line legal database.
Broad legal term that is commonly used to mean a legal responsibility.
Coverage for damages arising out of insured's legal responsibility and resulting from injuries to other persons or damage to their property.
A defamatory statement expressed in a fixed medium, such as a writing, art, or the internet.
(1) A state or federal approval given to a business or person who has fulfilled certain criteria such as education or testing. (2) Right to use a creative work of another person.
licensed practical nurse (LPN)
A nurse who has some medical training.
One who has an express right to be on the premises, but is not there for the owner's benefit, such as a social guest. An owner has a duty to warn the licensee about dangerous conditions, if they are known to the owner.
A government entity which grants permission to perform certain functions
A legal claim against the property that must be cleared before the owner can sell the property.
The most recent major legislation affecting immigration enacted in December 2000. Allows those who are out of status, entered EWI, or worked in the U.S. without USCIS authorization to adjust status through a family member or a labor certification filed before April 30, 2001.
Ownership of a property for the term of one's life.
Any medical procedure, treatment, or intervention, including artificially provided sustenance and hydration, that sustains, restores, or supplants a spontaneous vital function. The term does not include the administration of medication or performance of medical procedure, when such medication or procedure is deemed necessary to provide comfort care or to alleviate pain.
Property that is similar in nature to property being sold by the seller. Generally used to refer to property involved in Internal Revenue Code §1031 like-kind exchanges.
limitation on suit clause
A property policy condition that requires a suit on a policy to be brought within a certain time, usually one or two years from the date of loss. These clauses are in effect contractual statutes of limitation, and are enforced. Under many states' laws, the time between the insured's notice of the claim to the insurer and the time of the insurer's claim decision does not count toward the expiration of the suit limitation period.
limited common areas
Property that physically is part of a Community Association's common areas but is reserved for the exclusive use of a particular unit owner or group or unit owners.
Fixing the amount a person can be forced to pay for a legal event at a limited sum.
limited liability company (LLC)
An artificial legal person set up to conduct a business owned and run by members.
limited liability partnership
An artificial legal person set up to conduct a business owned and run by members, which is set up for professionals such as attorneys or doctors.
A partner in a limited partnership who is in the position of an investor, and has no authority to engage in operating the business.
A business that is owned by two or more persons of which one or more is liable for the debts of the business and one or more has no liability for the debts.
limited power of attorney
A power of attorney that limits the agent's authority to certain specific areas or actions.
line item budget
Format listing of expenses by type.
line of credit
The amount a person or corporation can purchase without putting up cash. Similar to a credit limit on a credit card.
Relationship in the direct ascending line, as in a parent.
The relationship between persons in direct line from each other, such as father to son, grandson, great-grandson.
Relationship in the direct descending line, as in a son or grandson.
Those things that can quickly be converted to cash. (Stocks and bonds are types of examples.)
In contract law, an amount specified by the parties in advance that a party would be entitled to receive if the other party breaches the contract. While a liquidated damage provision eliminates the need to prove a party's actual damages, the amount of damages specified must be reasonable and cannot be so high as to amount to a penalty that the courts will not enforce.
A notice placed in the real estate records that someone has a claim against property, even though that claim might not rise to the status of a lien. Heirs fighting over property might file lis pendens notices against each other. Spouses in the process of a divorce not yet finalized might file a lis pendens in order to put potential purchasers or lienholders that someone else might own the property before too long, and all buyers should beware!
Commonly used term for the sheet of information on real property that each real estate agent has access to.
The real estate agent who signs the contract with the seller to list the property for sale.
A lawsuit in which parties present evidence and resolve issues.
Life insurance that pays a benefit while you are alive.
A trust created during lifetime (instead of created at someone's death via their will). Generally the trust is for the benefit of the person who creates the trust, but it becomes irrevocable upon the death of the person who creates the trust. The term means the same as inter-vivos trust.
A wage rate higher than the federal minimum wage that some local jurisdictions require government contractors to pay their employees.
A document stating a person's desires regarding the use of life-prolonging procedures in the event the person is in certain medical conditions, such as a terminal condition, an end-stage condition, or a permanent vegetative state; and is either unable to make his or her own decisions, or is unable to communicate his or her wishes.
The amount of money one person or entity lets another borrow.
Function that includes the receipt of payments, customer service, escrow administration, investor accounting, collections, and foreclosures.
See loan modification.
Extends the loan for more time while reducing the amount of payment.
Procedures that a lender follows to produce a mortgage on real property.
loan origination fee
Fee charged a borrower by a lender for negotiating a loan.
Package of pertinent papers and documents regarding a specific property or properties, delivered to a prospective lender to obtain financing.
Assumption of existing financing by a new owner when a property is sold.
The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the loan amount to the value of the mortgaged property.
local housing authority
Government agency that monitors and implements programs to satisfy community housing development needs.
Where the home sits, in terms of neighbors, neighboring structures, city, county, and state.
A written contract from the lender that guarantees a particular interest rate on a particular property for a set period of time.
Another fee charged by some lenders at the time the borrower is given a lock-in mortgage rate.
Number of days during which a lender guarantees a borrower a specific interest rate and terms on a mortgage.
Postal address maintained by a mortgagor used solely for the purpose of collecting mortgage checks. (In some areas a lockbox is actually a metal box which locks onto the front door of a home for sale. The real estate agents have keys to the lockboxes. Inside the lockbox is the actual key to the home.)
The interest rate on a mortgage loan that the lender has agreed to use if the loan closes within a specified time.
long-term care facility
A lifestyle option for seniors who require skilled medical care or are otherwise unable to care for themselves. Nursing care and many basic activities of daily living are provided by the facility staff.
long-term care insurance
An insurance policy providing coverage of costs for various long-term care options for seniors or disabled persons. Policies and their coverage vary widely.
Mortgage or loan with a term of ten years or more.
look back period
A three- to five-year period of time prior to applying for Medicaid, during which certain transfers of the applicant's property for less than fair market value will trigger a period of Medicaid ineligibility for the applicant.
Amount of an insured's claim; amount of decrease in value of the insured's property.
loss of consortium
Loss of the affection, sexual relations, aid , services and companionship that one spouse is entitled to from the other spouse.
loss of future earning capacity
Loss of the ability to earn future wages as the result of an accident.
A person, such as a mortgagee or seller of an item of personal property under an installment contract, who is added to coverage as to the building or item of property as an additional insured to the extent of their interest in the property and/or unpaid loan balance.
The money that an injured party is awarded for the time he or she lost from employment due to the injury.
Measured parcel of land having fixed boundaries as shown on the recorded plat.
See diversity visa.
A contract required by some employers that sets out certain ground rules for an office romance, especially one between a supervisor and a lower-level employee. By having the parties acknowledge that the relationship is consensual and can be terminated by either party at any time, the employer hopes to avoid later claims of discrimination based on sexual harassment.
(1) Upkeep of property or an item in its proper and functional condition. (2) The term used in some states for alimony.
A charge for work done.
Schedule of all repair, inspection, cleaning, lubrication and other tasks necessary to keep something in proper working order.
managed care plan
A type of health insurance plan in which the participant is limited in his or her choice of health insurance providers but pays either nothing or only a small amount for services.
The document that controls the operation of a limited liability company that is managed by managers.
A business that takes care of property for the owner. It may be responsible for collecting rents, maintenance, leasing to and evicting tenants, or all of these.
Letter from an accountant or auditor with questions and suggestions regarding the financial aspects of managing the association.
Program for operating the community.
(1) A person who controls the operations of a limited liability company. (2) Person who advises a musical act in matters related to their career. Also called a personal manager. (3) Individual hired to day-to-day operation of a property.
A limited liability company that is controlled by one or more managers who are not all of the members of the company.
managers only manual
A manual of policies and procedures distributed only to management-level employees.
managing general agent
See general agent.
A petition filed in federal court to have a federal judge order the USCIS to take a certain action.
The requirement that copies of a copyrighted work be sent to the copyright office within three months of publication.
The portion of the interest rate over the index rate. It is the profit to the lender.
Assets that are considered the property of both parties to a marriage.
Property considered by some state laws as owned by husband and wife together.
A trust created at death for the benefit of the decedent's spouse that takes advantage of federal estate tax exemptions, but is not able to be changed by the surviving spouse.
A research tool in which a business asks potential buyers what they want.
Approximate price that a property can get when sold. (It is calculated by looking at comparables and factoring in the potential growth of the area.)
The strategy behind the advertising, promotion, and sale of a service or product.
The blue print or road map of a business's advertising, promotion, and sales activities.
The legal term used to describe any device a business uses to distinguish its products or services from those of others. A mark can be any word, name, brand, symbol, or logo.
A layoff of at least fifty employees at a single site that amounts to at least 33% of the workforce at that site.
Two meanings. 1. The post-production work on a recording. 2. The final version of the recording itself.
master calendar hearing (MCH)
As opposed to the individual hearing, usually a brief housekeeping hearing before an immigration judge (IJ) at which the alien pleads to the Notice to Appear and states the relief for which he or she is applying.
Recorded instrument which describes the property involved in a Community Association and may contain specific references to properties in the Community Association subject to the master deed.
master use license
The right to use a particular recording made by someone else.
An outdated reference to an employer-employee relationship.
A breach of the lease by either landlord or tenant that has a sufficient influence or effect on the other party.
material irreparable breach
A breach of the lease that is not only material, but also cannot be corrected. (Examples include assault and drug possession.)
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
An Occupational Safety and Health Administration form used to communicate information about hazardous chemicals.
A 21-year old college student who was murdered in an anti-gay hate crime in Laramie, Wyoming, sparking a wave of anti-hate crime protesting.
A style of claim format which uses the word "means" followed by a specified function. Look to the specification to determine what types of "means" carries out the specified function.
Lien placed against property by an "unpaid" private contractor.
The right to record a song written by another person.
Repair, inspection, lubrication and cleaning of machines and tools to keep them in proper working condition.
The payment to the songwriter for each sale of a recording made pursuant to a mechanical license.
mechanics and materialmen's lien (M&M liens)
This is a lien that suppliers and workers can place on property for the value of their goods and services.
A form of dispute resolution in which a person called a mediator attempts to help the parties reach a mutually agreeable settlement of the dispute. Mediation is different from arbitration in that the mediator does not make a decision, as does an arbitrator.
Governmental program that provides payment for medical service to persons who cannot otherwise afford health care.
A method by which you sell your home and invest the proceeds in an annuity that does not affect your Medicaid eligibility.
An exam done by a USCIS or State Department approved physician and on a special form required prior to adjustment of status or to obtaining immigrant visa at an embassy or consulate.
Medical Information Bureau (MIB)
A database checked by life insurance underwriters to obtain health information about people applying for life insurance.
Federally funded health insurance provided to persons aged 65 and older, certain younger disabled persons, and certain persons with permanent kidney failure.
Private health insurance that covers things Medicare does not.
Association members gathered to discuss issues and make decisions on them through motions.
The term used to describe statutes requiring local law enforcement agencies to notify a community of any resident convicted of a sexually related crime. Named after Megan Kanka, who at age seven, was raped and murdered by a twice-convicted sex offender.
Person owning an interest in a limited liability company.
A limited liability company that is controlled by all of its members.
A document similar to a prospectus, sometimes also referred to as an offering circular, that is the official document by which private placements are offered and sold.
A concept in criminal law that involves criminal intent on the part of the defendant.
When two separate legal interests combine into one.
Protection enacted and provided by the Soldier's and Sailor's Civil Relief Act to a mortgagor who is about to enter or is in the military and whose ability to keep a loan current has been materially affected by military service
See equity skimming.
minimum lot zoning
Type of zoning that specifies the smallest lot size permitted per building.
The least amount you can pay to keep an account current.
The minimum hourly amount that employers must pay employees pursuant to the Fair Labor Standards Act (or the parallel provisions of state law).
An exception to laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of religion. Under the ministerial exception, religious organizations may discriminate in the selection of their clergy.
In most states, someone under the age of 18 years.
minority interest owners
The owners of an interest in an LLC who own less than a majority interest.
Official record of proceedings of a meeting.
Rights that apply in a criminal investigation to a potential suspect to be advised of his or her right to remain silent and right to counsel.
The less serious classification of crimes carrying lower sentences.
The purpose of a business.
Specific genes that do not determine physical traits, but can carry inherited diseases.
The process of adjusting the sound levels of the various tracks of a recording to create a desired sound for a song.
Factory-assembled residence consisting of one or more modules, in which a chassis and wheels are an integral part of the structure, and can be readied for occupancy without removing the chassis or wheels.
The equipment that creates the telephone link between computers.
An increase or decrease in the amount of current child support due.
(1) A change made to an existing contract. (2) An increase or decrease in the amount of current child support due. (3) When the term is used as a method to avoid foreclosure, it means that the lender agrees to change the terms of the loan so that the borrower can make the payments. The change could be lowering the interest rate, forgiving delinquent interest, or any other change to help the borrower cure the default.
A reverse mortgage program allowing the borrower to take a portion of the loan amount as a lump sum and the balance in lifetime payments.
A reverse mortgage program that allows the borrower to take a portion of the loan amount as a lump sum and the balance in payments over a specified term.
MOL (more or less)
Used in legal descriptions of property because exact areas are not easy to ascertain.
Books that only cover a very small portion of a subject.
Payments of principal and interest collected by mortgage lenders every 30-31 days. This payment may also include escrow items for taxes or insurance and thereby called the housing payment.
monthly periodic rate
The APR divided by twelve months.
A recent theory that artists have some enduring rights in works they create and sell.
Legal authorization to suspend an activity.
(1) A loan for purchase of property where the property is put up as collateral. (2) A legal instrument that pledges a piece of real property to guarantee payment of a loan. Some states use mortgages, others use deeds of trust.
A mortgage company that makes portfolio mortgage loans or loans to be sold in the secondary market, as opposed to simply brokering the loans.
A person or company that facilitates obtaining a mortgage loan. The broker puts together the loan package for submission to a lender and charges a fee for the service. The cost to the borrower may be less than dealing directly with a lender, since the broker can shop the package and has access to hundreds of lenders.
Any of a number of programs designed to supply information on various aspects of mortgage lending, such as amortization schedules, monthly payments at various interest rates, or savings on prepayment.
Agreement between lender and borrower detailing the terms of a mortgage loan such as interest rate, loan type, term, and amount.
An insurance contract that will pay the lender should the borrower default on the mortgage loan.
mortgage insurance premium (MIP)
The required insurance payment for an FHA loan. The insurance is to protect the lender from a loss if the borrower defaults.
mortgage life insurance
Insurance policy that will pay the rest of the mortgage due if the primary borrower dies.
mortgage loan application
The supplying of financial information by a borrower to a lender to help the lender decide whether to make a mortgage loan and which loan program it can offer.
mortgage pass-through securities
See mortgage-backed securities.
Bonds issued by secondary lenders that are secured by mortgages. The sale of these instruments replenishes the supply of money to the secondary mortgage market.
The lender that receives a mortgage in exchange for making a loan.
The borrower that gives a mortgage to a lender to secure repayment of a loan.
(1) A request to a court, often in writing, to obtain a ruling or order from the court. (2) Formal proposal put before an assembly on which action must be taken.
motion for judgment
Motion filed by one party during the trial asking the court to rule in its favor regarding some or all of the issues in the case.
motion in limine
Motion filed by one party to prevent the other party from using certain evidence at the trial of the case.
motion to reopen
A common motion to make a previously denied or closed benefit pending again in order to obtain that benefit. There may be restrictions on the number of motions, when they may be filed and the basis for reopening.
This is the opportunity for both landlord and tenant to document the condition of the dwelling at the time that the tenant is moving in, and the opportunity for the landlord to address any items that need repair at that time.
This is the opportunity for both landlord and tenant to document the condition of the dwelling at the time that the tenant moves out. This inspection should be used in conjunction with the move-in inspection to determine appropriate tenant responsibility for items that need repair or replacement after the tenant has left.
Multiethnic Placement Act
A federal law that denies funding to adoption agencies that delay or deny placement because of race.
See concurrent causation.
multiple listing services (MLS)
The listings used by brokers and real estate agents to list properties for sale.
multiple listing services (MLS)
Provides information to all real estate agents that are registered members, about every house that other members are selling.
A claim which depends on more than one claim. As with a dependent claim, a multiple-dependent claim must further restrict the claims on which it depends.
Doing more than one thing at a time.
Relatively safe investment in a grouping of bonds and stocks.
NAIC (National Association of Insurance Commission
Organization whose membership consists of state insurance regulators. (NAIC's objectives are to promote uniformity in regulation by drafting model laws and regulations for adoption by the states and to provide support services to insurance departments such as examinations and statistical information.)
Person or entity in an insurance policy entitled to indemnification by having a covered injury or liability.
named peril insurance
Policy under which only specified causes are considered to be covered.
Insurance term for a policy that will specifically list the perils insured against as opposed to an "all risk" policy that covers all perils other than those specifically excluded.
National Association of Home Builders (NAHB)
National trade association that provides support to the building industry through lobbying and educational services.
National Association of Mortgage Brokers (NAMB)
Professional society for mortgage brokers that was developed to foster professional business relationships.
National Association of Realtors® (NAR)
Trade association representing real estate sales professionals. (Realtors® is a registered trade mark of the National Association, and is properly used only to describe members of the Association, not all real estate brokers or agents.)
National Visa Center (NVC)
State Department office located in New Hampshire that stores approved visa petitions until they become current.
For immigration purposes, generally the same as citizenship.
Ovulation that occurs without medication or medical intervention.
A human being as opposed to a legal person created by the law.
Process whereby a green card holder becomes a U.S. citizen through filing a N-400 application.
A document given as evidence as having become a citizen of the U.S. by naturalization.
Unpaid interest that is added to the mortgage principal in a loan where the principal balance increases rather than decreases because the mortgage payments do not cover the full amount of interest due.
negative cash flow
Assuming you make all your bank deposits on time, and pay all your bills on time, you have negative cash flow when there's not enough money in the bank to pay your bills.
The failure to exercise ordinary case in a particular circumstance.
negligence per se
Negligence from violating a statute (law). For example, if the law says that you must have a fence around your pool and you do not, injury caused by not having the fence would be negligence per se.
See direct liability.
A debt instrument that may be transferred (sold) using procedures set out by the Uniform Commercial Code. The buyer incurs less liability than the originator of the instrument. Mortgage notes are negotiable instruments.
The process of resolving a dispute to a mutually acceptable solution.
The practice of hiring relatives or favoring them in workplace decisions.
The profit remaining after all expenses have been deducted from income.
Amount of cash that the seller gets after expenses are deducted from a home sale.
Value of all the person's assets minus all his or her debts.
Your system for developing business contacts for advice, information, and support.
When you file your patent application you have set the disclosure for your invention. If you try to add any new material to your patent application later on that new material will probably be considered new matter. You are not allowed to add new matter to your application.
Printed periodical report devoted to news of and for the association members and others associated with the community.
Method in which a court can consider a parent's sexual orientation in a custody case.
Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief
Law that allows certain individuals from eastern Europe, former Soviet block countries, who entered the U.S. prior to 1991 and filed for asylum at that time to apply for suspension of deportation
no code order
See do not resuscitate order.
no fault benefits
Chose benefits obtainable from one's own insurance company, usually for medical bills and lost wages. This is sometimes also known as PIP benefits or first party benefits.
Concept accepted by most states which allows a couple to divorce without the need for stating a formal reason for the marital breakdown.
A form of auto insurance mandatory in twelve states, and optional in several others. Under no-fault coverage generally, the insured looks to his or her own insurer for bodily injury claims that fall below a certain threshold and cannot sue a third party for damages. Persons living in no-fault jurisdictions should consult with their department of insurance for state specific no-fault information.
A letter issued by the Social Security Administration to an employer stating that an employee's name and Social Security Number as reported on a W-2 form do not match the Administration's records.
See admitted insurer.
Clause in a mortgage that prohibits the assumption of a mortgage by a third party without approval of the lender.
An agreement that an employee will not compete with his former employer after the employment terminates.
A loan that does not fall within the guidelines of Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac for sale to the secondary market.
Permitted use of real property that does not conform to current zoning laws.
The parent who does not have primary care, custody, or control of the child.
Assets that must be considered when applying for Medicaid.
An employee who is covered by minimum wage and overtime requirements of the Fair Labor Standards Act (or the parallel provisions of state law).
nonimmigrant visa (NIV)
Any one of the several dozen visa types that permit one to stay in the U.S. for a temporary period for a specific purpose.
Being able to foreclose on real estate without a court's assistance. This is allowed in some states.
Assets that are considered the separate property of only one party to a marriage. Generally these are assets that were acquired before the marriage, or acquired by one party as a separate gift or inheritance.
Property designated by state law as being the separate property of one of the parties. Nonmarital property is generally not subject to any claims by the spouse.
An auto, not owned by an insured and not specifically described and rated in the insured's auto policy, such as a rented or borrowed auto, used by an insured person with the permission of its owner. Nonowned autos are usually defined as vehicles not regularly available to or furnished to an insured person.
A specific way of organizing a business for charitable or benevolent purposes.
A mortgage loan under which the borrower is not personally liable if the mortgaged property does not bring enough money at the foreclosure to cover what is owed.
The part of the security deposit that will not be returned to the tenant at the end of the lease. These nonrefundable deposits are usually earmarked for the cleaning or redecorating of the dwelling.
A refusal by an insurer to continue coverage under a policy at its expiration. Most states restrict an insurer's right to nonrenew personal lines policies.
Certificate obtained from Florida Department of Revenue confirming that there are no estate taxes due on the estate.
North American Industry Classification System (NAI
A system of six digit numbers used to classify industries.
A person who is legally authorized by the state to acknowledge signatures on legal documents.
A debt instrument by which the borrower promises to repay money. A mortgage is used to secure the promise.
Notification of a claim or lawsuit.
notice of action
notice of allowability
This form means that your examiner has allowed all of your claims and that your patent application is ready to be issued.
notice of appeal
If you disagree with the reasoning of your examiner, you have the option of filing this form to the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences.
notice of default
An instrument giving notice that a mortgage loan borrower is in default. The document is recorded and becomes a matter of public record. The notice is required to begin foreclosure proceedings.
notice of intent to deny
Issued either for an I-130 petition or asylum application (where applicant is in valid nonimmigrant status) to give the applicant an opportunity to rebut and submit additional evidence.
notice of nonpayment of rent
A written notice from the landlord to the tenant specifying any and all amounts due, and providing the time allowed by state law to pay those amounts.
notice to appear (NTA)
Charging document that brings a person before the immigration court.
notice to quit
Informing a tenant to leave the property or face eviction. The notice could simply demand that the tenant leave or be conditional, such as pay the rent owed or leave.
A process in which the nucleus of an egg cell is removed and replaced with another nucleus.
Part of a cell that contains genetic material.
A facility in which medical care is received on a long-term basis.
Providing a person with food through a feeding (gastrointestinal), or an intravenous, tube.
A notarized statement.
A death notice in a newspaper.
objective evidence of injury
An injury that is directly provable generally through radiological methods, such as MRI, X - ray or EMG testing.
The amount of money to be paid as child support by a noncustodial parent.
The person or agency to whom child support is owed.
The person who is required to pay child support
A patent term of art used to describe the combination of prior art references to anticipate your invention even though no one of the prior art references alone anticipates your invention.
A government-issued permit to transact business.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
An act that requires employers to comply with a variety of safety and health standards for the protection of their employees.
A liability coverage concept applicable to bodily injury and property damage coverage. Under most American liability policies, occurrence is defined as a accident. The occurrence or accident refers to the liability producing act, not the resulting injury or damage. Under the law of most states, if the liability producing act was intentional, resulting injury or damage is not covered, even if the particular injury or damage was not expected by the insured.
Those improvements outside the boundaries of a property that enhance its value, such as sidewalks, streets, curbs, and gutters.
Legally presenting the seller(s) with a contract to purchase; acceptance is not guaranteed.
A disclosure and information document used to furnish information about a company and its stock offering to prospective investors; commonly used for exempt offerings and patterned after a prospectus.
A written communication which you receive from the PTO concerning your patent application.
Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE)
The federal agency responsible for the administration of the child support program. Created by Title IV-D of the Social Security Act in 1975, OCSE is responsible for the development of child support policies in the state child support enforcement programs.
Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OF
An office within the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment Standards Administration that administers government contractors' compliance with Executive Order 11246, the Rehabilitation Act, and the Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act.
The registry of deeds and other interests in real property in each county.
Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA)
An amendment to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. OWBPA imposes special requirements for releases of ADEA claims in connection with exit incentive programs offered to groups of employees.
An advocate on behalf of nursing home and assisted living facility residents who is responsible for addressing residents' disputes with facilities, and in some cases, for investigating complaints of elder abuse.
A state representative who handles complaints and inquiries about nursing homes.
on all fours
A case that is identical to your case in every way.
Improvements within the boundaries of a property that increase its value.
A person who lives on the property and is responsible for the day-to-day activities, such as collection of rent, maintenance, and showing the property to prospective tenants.
When the I-130 and I-485 forms are filed at the same time normally with the local USCIS office if one is the beneficiary of an immediate visa petition.
The link between computers over telephone lines.
A source of information accessed through a telephone connection.
An egg cell.
An adoption in which the child is aware that he or she was adopted and one in which he or she may or may not have contact with the birth parents.
open and notorious
Legal description of the use of property that is essential in establishing adverse possession; technically means not hidden.
open equity line
Second mortgage that is an open line of credit; the balance can be increased by future draws up to a set amount.
Written contract that does not allow one licensed real estate agent the exclusive right to sell a property for a specified time, but reserving the owner's right to sell the property alone without the payment of a commission.
A workplace that employs both union and nonunion employees.
Opening address given by each side before the testimony begins. It serves to summarize the evidence and orient the jury to the case it is about to hear.
A contract among members of a limited liability company spelling out how the company is to be run.
Portion of the budget for the expenses of operating the association other than reserves.
Costs incurred to maintain a property and keep it productive of services.
Funds set aside for the payment of an annual expense.
The written decision of a court.
oppressive child labor
With certain exceptions, employment of any child who is under the age of 16, regardless of the occupation, and employment of a child who is between the ages of 16 and 18 in mining, manufacturing, or other hazardous industries.
The choice of entering into a contract. For example, a lease could give the tenant the option (right but not obligation) to extend beyond the expiration date or the option to purchase the property.
The right to purchase a property some time in the future.
oral rental agreement
Less preferable than a written rental agreement, an oral rental agreement contains the essential terms of a tenancy without a written document.
A pronouncement of the judge. Orders may be temporary or permanent. If an order resolves all of the issues in a case, it is called a judgment or decree.
A law passed by a city, town, or other municipal government.
ordinary skill in the art
This refers to the level of skill which would be possessed by a person employed in the technology of the invention.
organ donor agreement
A written document outline a person's wishes that his or her organs be donated after their death to another or science.
The meeting of the founders of a corporation or limited liability company in which company is structured and ready to begin business.
The retail lender that makes the mortgage loan to the borrower. The loan can either be kept as a portfolio loan or sold to a secondary lender.
original works of authorship
Works created by a person, rather than copied from others.
The date of the mortgage note.
A fee, usually expressed in points, paid to the retail lender for services.
out of status (overstay)
One whose nonimmigrant status as set forth on the I-94 card or a subsequent extension has ended; or the person has violated the terms of the visa, for example, by engaging in unauthorized employment.
Individual manager or management company whose representative does not live in the community.
Building, renovation or remodeling that is inappropriate to an area due to excess size, cost, or inadequate return on investment.
Egg cell, female reproductive cell.
owned real estate (ORE)
Sometimes called REO (Real Estate-Owned). This is the portfolio of property on which a bank has foreclosed and still owns. Technically, branch banks would seem to be "owned real estate" but the term refers only to foreclosure properties.
Seller provides part or all of the financing in the sale of real estate.
Purchase of a property as the primary residence of the owner.
Manuals of policies and procedures of an association affecting the members.
paid time off (PTO)
PTO plans replace various forms of leave traditionally offered to employees.
Court ordered support paid by one member of a couple, who were never married, to the other after a break-up.
Medical care or treatment designed to alleviate pain or discomfort, rather than to cure or control the underlying illness or injury.
An adoption in which the adoptive parent locates the child or birth mother instead of having an agency do so.
The details of the actual time that a parent (or person with the right to see the child) spends with the child. This may include significant dates like birthdays and holidays as well as routine periods such as every Tuesday.
As opposed to a legal concept of custody, parenting time designates the actual time that a party spends with his or her child. Some courts may think of this as physical custody or visitation.
Established rules of parliamentary law and unwritten rules of courtesy used to facilitate the transaction of business in deliberative assemblies.
A humorous imitation of a work.
A rule of evidence that applies in regard to contract litigation that may exclude the admission of certain evidence unless it is part of the written contract.
Generally given to an alien outside the U.S. for humanitarian reasons or to an alien who in the U.S. who wishes to travel abroad and whose paperwork for adjustment is pending. Constitutes a lawful entry for purposes of applying for adjustment of status.
The remaining dollar amount of a veteran's entitlement after the veteran has used part of his or her full entitlement of a VA mortgage.
Payment of only a portion of the required amount due, including payments received without the late charge.
partial payment agreements
An agreement between the parties that the tenant will pay a portion of the amounts due on specific date(s), with a certain date when the final payment is due.
A court action to sell a property and split the proceeds between the owners.
An association of two or more persons to carry on as co-owners a business for profit.
An agreement, written or oral, among the partners concerning the partnership, including amendments to the partnership agreement.
partnership at will
A partnership in which the partners have not agreed to remain partners until the expiration of a definite term or the completion of a particular undertaking.
All of a partner's interests in the partnership, including the partner's transferable interest and all management and other rights.
A person who files a divorce action, or the person one is filed against. The husband and wife are the parties in a divorce action.
An office of the Department of State that issues passports and in doing so, may make decisions on U.S. citizenship.
Protection given to inventions, discoveries, and designs.
patent and trademark office (PTO)
The administrative agency charged with handling your application for a patent.
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
The PCT allows you to file one international application in which you designate all those countries which you want to seek patent protection.
patent term adjustment
There are many situations where the PTO will add extra days, months or even years to your patent term. The PTO does this by making an adjustment to your patent term.
Legal determination of fatherhood. Paternity must be established before child or medical support can be ordered.
A financial account, such as a bank account or certificate of deposit that is payable to a certain person upon the death of the account holder.
payable on death (POD)
An account that passes directly to a designated beneficiary upon the owner's death.
The person who is entitled to receive a payment of alimony or child support.
Limitation on increases or decreases in the payment amount of an adjustable-rate mortgage or fixed-rate mortgage.
Part of a person's credit report; records of late and on-time payments.
Plan for periodic payments for a debt or obligation such as a stipulation for judgment.
Statement detailing the unpaid principal balance, accrued interest, outstanding late charges, legal fees, and all other amounts necessary to pay off the lender in full.
The person who is obligated to pay alimony or child support.
A period of time during which a Medicaid applicant is ineligible for enrollment, because of certain transfers of the applicant's property for less than fair market value.
Will or trust distribution plan that requires that all living descendants of the grantor, regardless of generation, receive an equal share of the grantor's estate.
Will or trust distribution plan that requires that descendants of a deceased beneficiary, as a group, inherit equal shares of the amount the deceased beneficiary would have received had he or she lived. (For example, if your child predeceases you, any grandchildren descended from that child would receive equal shares of your deceased child's inheritance.)
A test used to determine the absorption rate of water into the ground where a septic system will be placed.
Disqualifying a juror for no stated reason.
Elimination of claims against title on real estate.
The contract that contains the terms for a live appearance by a musical act.
performance rights society
Organization that administers royalty payments earned by songwriters when other people play their song.
The crime of giving false statements under oath.
Slang for a worker who, despite long tenure on the job, is still classified as temporary for benefit or other purposes.
Permanent Partners Immigration Act (PPIA)
A proposed bill which would change current U.S. immigration law and allow United States citizens and lawful permanent residents to sponsor their permanent partners for residence in the United States.
permanent resident (LPR)
See lawful permanent resident.
persistent vegetative state
A permanent and irreversible condition of unconsciousness in which there is: (a) the absence of voluntary action or cognitive behavior of any kind, and (b) an inability to communicate or interact purposefully with the environment.
A group of liability coverages including such things as libel and slander, false imprisonment, and violation of a person's right of privacy. Personal injury does not include bodily injury, sickness, or disease.
personal injury protection
The formal name for no-fault auto coverage.
This applies to whether or not the court has jurisdiction over the defendants in a civil case.
Being forced to pay for a liability out of personal funds rather than from limited company assets.
All property other than land and things permanently attached to the land (such as buildings).
personal protective equipment (PPE)
Equipment required by various Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards to be worn to reduce excessive exposure to workplace conditions that could cause personal injury.
A person appointed by the court or a will to oversee distribution of the property of someone who has died. This is a more modern trend and generally replaces the terms administrator, administratrix, executor, and executrix.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Recon
The federal welfare reform law that provides a number of requirements for employers, public licensing agencies, financial institutions, as well as state and federal child support agencies, to assist in the location of absent parents and the establishment, enforcement, and collection of child support.
When legal papers are personally delivered to a person by a sheriff or other authorized process server.
Use of a copyrighted work for other than commercial purposes.
See employee handbook.
(1) Document that initiates a lawsuit. (2) A written document submitted to a court or administrative agency requesting a remedy.
petition to make special
A petition which you can submit to the PTO in order to speed up examination of your patent application. You or your invention must fall into one of the categories of persons which serves as the basis for such a petition.
(1) Anyone who petitions, or asks the court in writing, to take a particular action. (2) The U.S. citizen or legal permanent resident or U.S. corporation filing on behalf of an alien beneficiary for either an immigrant or nonimmigrant visa.
The term used in the Copyright Act for a recording, such as a CD.
Term used to describe the parent with whom a child primarily resides.
Repair, inspection and cleaning of a physical plant to keep it in proper condition.
piercing the corporate veil
When a court ignores the corporate structure to hold the owners of the business liable.
A second mortgage loan offered with the first loan. The purpose is to reduce the first loan to 80% so PMI is not required.
A person who brings a case. This person may also be called a petitioner.
plan of care
Plan describing how a nursing home resident will be cared for.
Community Association which is other than a condominium, stock cooperative or community apartment project.
Development having one or both of two features: first, a common area, and second, the association has the power to assess a separate interest owner, such as a unit or apartment, and to lien such owner's interest and it is not necessarily one of the other three forms of CID.
Expenditures which are expected and intentionally provided for the future.
planned unit development (PUD)
A subdivision with lots the same size or nearly the same size as the buildings on them. The owner of each unit owns the lot under the unit, and owns the remainder of the subdivision in common with the other unit owners.
Map representing a piece of land subdivided into lots with streets, boundaries, easements, with legal dimensions shown.
Book showing the lots and legal descriptions of the subdivisions of an area; usually recorded and kept in city and county government offices.
A written paper filed in a lawsuit which gives a party's position, such as a complaint or an answer.
To put up property as security for a loan.
pledged account mortgage (PAM)
Graduated payment mortgage in which part of the buyer's down payment is deposited into a savings account; funds are drawn from the account to supplement the buyer's monthly payments during the early years of the loan.
The main story line of a work.
Layout of improvements on a site, including their location, dimensions, and landscapes. (The plot plan is generally a part of the architectural plan.)
Charge that is paid outside of closing. (This would include closing costs such as the appraisal and credit report that an applicant pays up-front to the lender.)
A small pamphlet placed in a slat, or pocket, in a book, meant as an update in lieu of printing a new hardbound book.
POD (also P/O/D)
Pay on death, usually used on bank accounts and in some states on securities.
A fee for providing a mortgage loan, usually based on a percentage of the loan amount.
The right by which the state or other governmental authority may take, condemn, destroy, impair the value of, limit the use of, or otherwise invade a person's property.
A lie detector. Polygraph tests in connection with employment are generally prohibited.
A business that can be run in many different places.
A mortgage lender who makes loans from the lender's own portfolio of assets.
A loan that will be kept by the originating lender and not sold in the secondary market.
A check dated with a future date.
postmarital agreement or postnuptial agreement
An agreement between a husband and wife, executed after they are married, providing for the division of their property in the event of death or divorce.
Will provision that distributes money or property to a trust that already exists.
power of appointment
A power, given by the owner of property to another person, to designate who will receive property or income from the property upon the death of the owner.
power of attorney (POA)
Legal document giving someone else the authority to manage your business, financial and legal affairs for you.
power of direction
The power of some person to instruct a trustee to take action.
The introductory portion of your claim. A preamble typically starts with the article "A" or "An."
Agreement by a lender to make a mortgage loan for a certain maximum amount without considering the specific property the borrower may purchase. It does not lock in the interest rate and is not a firm commitment to make the loan.
prearranged financing agreement
Used in some areas of the country to prove that the buyer has been pre-approved for a mortgage loan.
A court's opinion furnishing an example, or authority, for an identical or similar case based on a similar question of law.
In some states there is a meeting preceding formal closing in which documents are reviewed and signed.
A campaign to hire workers away from a particular company in order to harm that company's ability to compete. Predatory hiring may violate antitrust laws.
Mortgage lending that has high fees, high interest rates, and difficult terms.
The payment to certain creditors to the exclusion of the remaining creditors; also, priority ranking of individuals or institutions who may be named as personal representative of an estate.
preference visa category
A family member other than an immediate relative and whose petition therefore requires a waiting period between the I-130 filing and the application for adjustment.
A separate class of a company's stock with certain preferential features over common stock that often include a right of its owners to be repaid before shareholders of common stock in the event of liquidation, rights to dividends before owners of common stock, and sometimes certain voting rights superior to those of common stock.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)
An amendment to Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act that defines sex discrimination to include discrimination because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions
An amendment that is received by the PTO on or before the mail date of your first office action. (MPEP sec. 714.01(c).)
An agreement between a man and woman, executed before they are married, providing for the division of their property in the event of death or divorce.
A theory of liability in tort law by which a property owner or manager may be liable to persons who are on the premises.
The amount of money charged by an insurer to issue a policy. Premiums are determined by the insurer's application of a rate against an exposure factor. For example, an insurer might charge a different rate for auto liability coverage for a person who has a greater number of miles driven annually than one who drives less. An insurer might charge a higher rate for premises liability coverage for an auto repair shop than for a stationary store.
Another name for a premarital agreement.
Payment made in addition to the required monthly mortgage payment. (Prepayment allows a borrower to pay down a mortgage loan quicker than originally planned as the payment goes against the principal, not the interest.)
An extra cost to the borrower if the loan is repaid sooner than required. The repayment time and penalty amount are not standard and not applicable to all loans.
Buyer who has been preliminarily approved for a loan; not a guarantee and final approval will depend on further investigation.
An estimate by a lender of the amount and type of loan for which a borrower may be eligible. It is given before the application and documentation is submitted, and is not binding on the lender. The term may also be used for the research done by a prospective borrower to estimate the amount and type of mortgage loan he or she may be qualified to expect.
Right to use property immediately. Compare with future interest.
president of the board
Elected officer responsible for the strategy and management of the association.
The wage paid for a particular job category. An employer must obtain a prevailing wage determination as part of the process of applying for an H-1B visa. State and local government contracts sometimes contain provisions requiring contractors to pay their employees prevailing wages.
Program of inspection and regular care that allows potential problems to be detected and solved early or prevented altogether.
price level adjusted mortgage (PLAM)
Mortgage loan in which the interest rate remains fixed, but the outstanding balance is adjusted periodically for inflation according to a price index like the Consumer Price Index or Cost-of-Living Index. At the end of each period, the outstanding balance is adjusted for inflation and monthly payments are recomputed based on the new balance.
Insurance that applies to a loss on a first dollar basis. For example, the liability coverage of a homeowners policy is primary insurance. If the insured has a personal umbrella policy, its coverage would apply as excess insurance upon exhaustion of the limits of liability of the homeowners policy.
The lender who originates the loan, also called the originating lender or retail lender. The term is used to distinguish this lender from one that buys the loan in the secondary market.
An inexact term that describes the home in which the borrower lives, as opposed to a vacation property. The common requirement is that the borrower spends most of the year at that location. Intent may also be considered. Mortgage loans are less expensive and easier to qualify for if the property to be mortgaged is the primary residence of the borrower.
Interest rate commercial banks charge their most creditworthy customers for short-term loans. Prime is a yardstick for trends in interest rates, and it is often a baseline for establishing interest rates on high-risk loans.
(1) The person on whose behalf an agent acts. (2) Amount of debt on a loan that does not include interest. (3) Property in a trust; also called corpus.
The lead applicant in an adjustment or asylum application.
The main beneficiary of a visa petition, as opposed to a derivative beneficiary such as a minor child who obtains status through the principal.
principal, interest, taxes, and insurance (PITI)
The costs used to determine the top loan income-to-debt ratio.
An art term used to describe reference(s) which meet the criteria set forth in any one of the prior art sections of U.S.C.,Title 35, sec. 102. If a reference constitutes prior art and it anticipates your invention, your claimed invention will be rejected.
Placing things in order of importance.
A method of ranking lienholders to determine who gets the first money off the top on a sale, who gets the second money, and so on. Except for very specialized circumstances in a bankruptcy, lienholders do not share money pro-rata. Each one must be paid in full before you can go to the next lower, or "junior" lienholder.
(1) This date is usually when you file your patent application. However, if you have filed previous applications for your same invention (either domestic or foreign), then this date can become the date that any one of those earlier applications was filed so long as you make a proper claim of priority to those earlier applications. This date can be absolutely critical with respect to negating a novelty or other prior art type rejection that you receive from the PTO. (2) The date used to determine when a beneficiary of a visa petition is able to apply for adjustment of status.
The right of a person not to have private facts disclosed to the public.
An adoption that does not involve an agency. The birth mother and intended parents work directly with each other.
private mortgage insurance (PMI)
A protection for the lender that it will not suffer a loss if the amount owed on the mortgage loan exceeds what the lender receives at a foreclosure sale. The policy does not cover the entire loan amount. The insurance is required when a borrower's down payment is less than 20%.
An offering of securities exempt from full SEC registration requirements that is usually made directly by the issuing company but may also be made by an underwriter.
A nurse employed by the patient and not the hospital or facility the patient is in.
Legal protection that may apply to certain relationships, for instance the attorney/client relationship or the doctor/patient relationship.
pro forma financial statements
Estimated income statement showing anticipated revenues, costs, and expenses over a period of time, and a balance sheet showing assets, liabilities, and equity at a fixed point in time.
A method to distribute income, ownership, or debts in a fair manner to both the buyer and the seller.
When a person chooses to act as his or her own attorney and represent him- or herself.
A legal principle that governs justification for making an arrest or issuing an arrest or search warrant. Probable cause means that it is reasonably probable that the person has committed a crime or that evidence of the crime may be on the premises.
Court process in which is a will is a validated and an estate is distributed.
Statutes enacted in virtually every state that governs wills, trust, and probate.
Generally, those assets of a decedent that are subject to probate; typically it does not include property passing automatically to a joint owner, pay-on-death accounts, or life insurance proceeds. This is matter of definition in a particular state's laws, and therefore varies from state to state.
A court action to enforce a court judgment or collect money owed.
See removal proceedings.
In the law, this means the manner in which a person is compelled to appear in court or respond to a lawsuit. Generally, this is done by a summons or by a subpoena.
These claims define methods of making or doing something and are characterized by their "ing" active elements steps.
Manufactured goods, merchandise, or inventions.
These types of claims define discrete physical structures or materials.
A theory of tort law by which a manufacturer or seller of a product may be liable for injuries resulting from the product.
A particular type of claim format where you recite the product, and then also recite a process of making that product.
Business for a professionally licensed person, such as an attorney, CPA, or insurance agent.
professional community association manager (PCAM)
The professional designation conferred by the Community Associations Institute on individuals who have met certain minimum levels of experience, education and participation in the profession of association management.
A legal business organization recognized by some states for certain professionals such as attorneys, accountants, and insurance agents.
professional employment organization (PEO)
An organization that, for a fee, jointly employs a company's employees in order to provide HRrelated functions, such as benefit plan administration, payroll services, and workers' compensation coverage.
Liability of a professional person to a client or patient.
A definition and exclusion common to the liability coverages of homeowners and businessowners policies. Professional services are not limited to traditional learned professions such as law, medicine, and accounting and include any activity that requires specialized skill and training.
What you pay taxes on. Because the principal portion of mortgage payments don't qualify as an accounting or an IRS expense, you can have a paper profit but still not have enough money to pay your bills.
profit and loss statement
Summary of the revenues, costs, and expenses over a period of time. Also called an income statement.
A policy of imposing increasingly severe discipline for repetitive misconduct.
Certain provisions of a contract may be prohibited by state or federal law, and neither party can legally waive certain rights or remedies that they would otherwise have.
project labor agreement (PLA)
A multi-employer pre-hire agreement used on construction projects, that requires all contractors and subcontractors who will work on the project to agree in advance to a master collective bargaining agreement.
Individual employed by a management company with specific responsibility to oversee and manage a particular community.
A legal document in which a person promises to pay a sum of money.
Persons who start a business venture and usually offer interests for sale to investors.
Proof comes in the form of evidence. Evidence comes in the form of testimony, documents, and physical things that are likely to prove the truth or falsity of an issue in the case.
proof of loss
A document that must be submitted by an insured in support of a loss under the property coverages of a policy. It must be signed and sworn to by the insured. It usually requires a complete inventory of all property for which claim is made and its value.
A liability coverage. Standard liability policies cover the insured's obligation to pay damages to others because of property damage caused by an occurrence. Property damage typically refers to physical injury to tangible property.
property division or property distribution
The allocation of property between the husband and wife in a divorce case.
Physical review or evaluation of a property to determine its current structural condition with a report identifying any deferred maintenance or environmental problems.
Protection of insured's real or personal property against loss or damage.
property settlement agreement
A contract or agreement entered into between husband and wife resolving all disputes relating to the marriage.
Tax against the owner of real estate.
property tax exemption
A reduction in property tax.
A business that is owned by one person.
The division of some expense between two parties usually as of a certain date.
A term of art used to describe everything that goes on between you and the PTO after you file your patent application.
protected health information (PHI)
Information about employees and others that is subject to privacy regulations of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
This type of patent application is easier to complete and less expensive than a regular application. However, they only last for a year. Before the end of that year, you will need to file a regular application in order to capture the priority date of the provisional application.
Terms of a legal document.
Conduct so closely related in time and space to the injury that it is legally determined to be the cause of that injury.
Amount of money awarded for those injuries and losses that flow immediately and directly from the defendant's conduct.
Authorization given to one person to vote in place of another.
The person who has developed a parent-like relationship with the child due to extensive care for the child. This might include a grandparent or a step-parent or a foster parent.
A person who contracts with an insured to represent the insured in the resolution of property insurance claims. The public adjustor may perform a variety of functions, including assisting the insured in preparation of the proof of loss and such other things as obtaining repair estimates from contractors. Public adjustors are usually compensated by receipt of a percent, often ten percent, of the insurer's loss payment.
State or federal programs, such as Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), that provide financial aid to eligible recipients.
Process whereby property that has been foreclosed is sold.
The body of all works not protected by copyright law.
To distribute copies of a work to the public or perform a work in public.
The process of licensing songs for commercial use.
Amount of money awarded to the plaintiff if the defendant acted recklessly, intentionally, outrageously or fraudulently. The award is over and above the actual damages, and is intended as a deterrent.
purchase and sale agreement
Legal document signed by both the buyer and seller to pass property with specific terms for a certain amount of money.
purchase money mortgage
(1) A mortgage given to a seller by a buyer as part of the down payment or to secure any part or the entire selling price of the property. (2) Any mortgage, the proceeds of which are used to purchase the mortgaged property, as distinguished from an equity loan or refinance loan.
putative father registry
A state registry that allows a man to record the fact that he believes he is the father of the child, before the child is born.
QTIP (qualified terminable interest property) trus
Trust that qualifies for the unlimited marital deduction and postpones payment of any estate taxes owed until both spouses have died. The surviving spouse receives trust income for life but has little or no legal right to the trust's principal.
Process that determines whether an applicant can be approved for a mortgage loan.
Qualified Domestic Relations Order (QDRO)
An order entered by a domestic relations court in compliance with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act that awards an interest in a pension plan to an alternate payee.
Qualified Medical Child Support Order (QMCSO)
Under a QMCSO, an employer with a group health insurance plan can be ordered to enroll an employee's child (the alternate payee) if the employer's plan includes a family coverage feature.
qualified Medicare beneficiary program
A state-sponsored program that pays Medicare premiums and co-pays.
See excess benefit plan.
An event that triggers an opportunity to elect COBRA coverage.
qualifying hospital stay
Inpatient hospital stay, occurring just before admission to a nursing home, that is required before Medicare will pay for nursing home care. A qualifying hospital stay must be at least three consecutive days.
Property acquired by a married person who dies a resident of the community property state, while owning property acquired while he or she was living outside of the community property state. Further, at the time of death, that property would have to have been community property, if the person had been living in the community property state at the time the property was acquired. In such a situation, the quasi-community property is treated like community property.
See liquid assets.
quid pro quo
A type of sex discrimination involving sexual favors in exchange for tangible job benefits.
Right of an owner to the use of property without disturbance.
quiet title action
Legal action taken to eliminate any interest or claim to property by others.
A legal instrument in which a person conveys any interest he or she may have in a property without guaranteeing that he or she actually has any interest.
Minimum number of members that must be present or votes that must be represented in person or by proxy at a meeting in order for business to be transacted legally.
A deferred compensation arrangement for select management or highly compensated employees. Employer contributions to a rabbi trust are not currently deductible by the employer or includible in the employer's income because the trust assets remain subject to claims by creditors of the employer.
Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act
A 1970 federal statute, primarily aimed at organized crime, that has been applied to employers who repeatedly violate immigration or other laws.
Radioactive gas found in some homes that may or may not cause health problems.
Raising capital refers to obtaining capital from investors or venture capital sources.
A basic charge for a loss exposure. An insurer determines the premium to charge for a particular coverage by multiplying the rate against an exposure factor. For example, a common liability exposure factor for premises liability coverage for light occupancy risks such as office exposures is square footage of the insured's premises. Many persons use rate or rates when what they really mean is premium.
A calculation that mortgage lenders use to determine approximately how much a person can afford to pay for a home. The most common ratio calculation is the 28/36 formula. According to this formula, the total mortgage payment should be no more than 28% of a borrower's gross income. The borrower's total debts should be no more than 36% of his or her gross income.
Land in its natural state, having no physical improvements such as grading, sewers, or structures.
Legal process in which parents of a child adopted internationally go through a US adoption.
Land and all permanent improvements on it; realty.
The term generally used for both buildings and land.
real estate agent
Person who is licensed to process the sale of real estate.
real estate attorney
An attorney that works primarily in the area of real estate law.
real estate broker
Person who does the same duties as a real estate agent, in addition to searching for homes, arranging funding, and negotiating contracts.
real estate laws
Regulations on a city, county, or state level that direct real estate transactions and the actions of real estate agents or brokers.
real estate property taxes
See real estate taxes.
Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA)
A federal law prohibiting certain unfair lending practices, such as kickbacks and requiring disclosure of costs for services performed.
real estate taxes
Local government annual fees levied on the ownership of real estate.
Land and the structures attached to it.
Real estate professional who has membership in a local real estate board that is affiliated with the National Association of Realtors®.
A requirement under the Americans with Disabilities Act to protect persons with disabilities. A requirement under Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act to allow for employee religious practices.
The care a reasonably prudent person would take under the circumstances. Failure to use reasonable care is required to prove negligence.
Some facts that could indicate that a crime may have been committed.
reasonable wear and tear
Generally considered to be the wear and tear that would be expected on a dwelling based on the age and condition of the dwelling, coupled with the length of the tenancy.
Revaluation of property for tax purposes.
A method of refiguring both the interest rate and monthly payment at a specific time in the loan term. The payment becomes the amount necessary to amortize the loan in the time remaining on the term. Depending on the original interest rate and payment agreement, recasting can increase the monthly payment by 100% or more. There is no cap when a loan is recast.
The case number assigned by a service center to a filing. The receipt number includes the first three letters of the Service Center and the year in which it was filed.
Short break in a business meeting.
Last step in the appraisal process whereby all data is compared and the approaches to value considered to arrive at a final estimate of value.
record of proceedings (rop)
Formal name given to the court file in immigration court and the file upon which the immigration judge makes a decision.
The fees charged by a local government to record the documents of a real estate transaction.
Public official or office who legally records the deed after the property has been sold or transferred.
The process of filing a deed, mortgage, or other legal document affecting title to land, with the court clerk's office.
Process of repayment of money advanced, such as for recording or merchandise creation.
The ability of a lender to look to the borrower to be personally responsible for the loss suffered if the sale of the mortgaged property from foreclosure does not cover the amount owed.
Type of mortgage loan whereby the lender's remedies in the event of borrower default are unlimited, extending beyond the property to the borrower's personal assets.
Arbitrary denial of real estate loan applications in certain geographical areas, without considering individual applicant qualifications.
The right to save a property from foreclosure after it has been sold for nonpayment.
reduced closing cost mortgage
Mortgage that carries a higher interest rate in exchange for no points or a credit towards other closing costs from the lender.
reduction in recruitment (RIR)
A relatively new fast track labor certification application where a company has already attempted to recruit a qualified worker and therefore does not need to go through supervised recruitment by the Department of Labor.
It is a document that lets an alien stay out of the country for over a year and up to two years without abandoning their permanent resident status.
Exchanging an old mortgage for a new mortgage with a lower interest rate.
Paying off an existing mortgage loan and replacing it with a new loan. The term is also used to describe getting a mortgage loan other than to purchase the property, even if there is no existing mortgage to be paid off.
One who is in the U.S. having been granted refugee status abroad, may apply for adjustment of status after one year in the U.S.
refugee travel document
Blue passport that replaces the passport from one's own country and is for refugees and asylees only. Does not function as a reentry permit. Serves as advance parole for refugees and asylees.
A predetermined business policy that governs taking back merchandise that is defective, flawed, or unwanted by consumers.
The part of the security deposit that the tenant may be entitled to receive at the end of the lease, depending on the condition of the dwelling at that time.
The person or entity listed with a state governmental agency to receive legal notices for a business organization.
registered nurse (RN)
A highly skilled nursing professional who is licensed pursuant to statutory requirements of the state in which the RN practices.
A physical location where the registered agent of a limited liability company can receive legal papers for the company.
Stands for National Security Entry-Exit Registration System (NSEERS). The short-lived, special registration program, initiated in December, 2002 and suspended one year later, that required males from 18 primarily Middle Eastern countries to report to USCIS. Failure to have registered in 2002 when the program was in effect may still be a bar to future adjustment of status unless good cause is shown.
A legal document that is filed with a state government to register a partnership. This is optional in most states.
Anyone residing in the U.S. since before 1972 may be admitted as permanent residents if they can show good moral character.
An exemption made by the SEC from filing a full registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933.
See Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA).
An exemption made by the SEC from filing a full registration statement under the Securities Act of 1933.
A part of the Truth in Lending Act requiring disclosure of the cost of a loan to a borrower.
Rules that are promulgated, or declared, by a state or federal agency.
Arm of the state or federal government that has the responsibility to license, pass laws, regulate, audit, and monitor industry related issues (i.e., NAIC, FHLBB, HUD).
Process of reconstructing or improving property that is in a state of disrepair, bringing it back to its full potential or use.
Federal law that prohibits most federal contractors and subcontractors from discriminating against persons with disabilities and requires affirmative action to ensure equal employment opportunity.
Term used by some lenders for a loan that replaces a defaulted student loan and clears up negative credit scores due to defaulting on student loans.
Fixing of all mortgage defaults by a borrower to return it to current status.
A contract of reinsurance is one by which an insurer procures a third person to insure against loss or liability by reason of such original insurance. The purpose of reinsurance is the spreading of risk, so that in the event of a catastrophic loss, no single insurer's financial condition is likely to be seriously impaired. Without delving too deeply into the issue of insurance industry accounting and regulation, reinsurance enables a given insurer to issue more policies than it could in the absence of reinsurance. Insurance commissioners generally limit the amount of insurance an insurer may write by comparing the ratio of written premium to policyholders' surplus. An insurer is allowed to reduce the amount of its written premium by the amount of reinsurance premiums ceded (i.e., for accounting purposes, an insurer is allowed to credit reinsurance premiums ceded against written premium). This lowers the written premium to policyholders' surplus ratio, enabling the insurer to write more policies. Reinsurance has an extensive vocabulary specific to that particular part of the business. The original insurer is referred to alternately as: the reinsured; the ceding insurer; or the cedent. The reinsurer is referred to as: the reinsurer; or, rarely, the assuming insurer. Reinsurers often retrocede a portion of the liability they assume under their contract of reinsurance with the cedent to a retrocessionaire. This is done for the same risk spreading reasons as between insurers and reinsurers. A contract of reinsurance is a separate contract from the original policy issued to the insured. A typical reinsurance contract calls for payment by the reinsurer to the reinsured only upon proof of payment by the insurer of a loss to the original insured. Under a contract of reinsurance, the reinsurer accepts a portion of the liability that the original insurer has assumed under the contract of insurance issued to the insured, in exchange for a proportion of the original premium, les
(1) A legal form that allows a doctor to share a patient's medical information with another person. (2) Discharge of secured property from a lien.
release of liability
Agreement by a lender to terminate personal obligation of a mortgagor in connection with payment of a debt.
release of lien
The document that discharges a secured property from a lien.
Dollar amount needed to remove a lien.
Something is relevant if it tends to prove or disprove an issue in the case.
In a tax-deferred property exchange, the property sold by the taxpayer.
Balance of an estate after all specific gifts have been distributed.
Person who takes the property after the life usage of the property by another. For example, if the testator bequeaths a life estate in his residence to Bob, and then at Bob's death the residence passes to Mary, then Mary is the remainderman.
A process that removes contaminants from a building or site.
Refers to the potential avenues for landlords and tenants if the other party has breached the rental agreement.
An illegal alien or a lawful permanent resident who has violated immigration law by committing certain criminal acts or fraud and is subject to removal or deportation.
One who is in proceedings is before the immigration court to determine whether he or she should be removed or deported.
The process by which the alien submits the proper form and evidence generally to a service center, showing that the marriage is bona fide or the alien has completed the investment requirements.
The periodic payment of money in exchange for the right to possession of the property.
A system for limiting the rent increases that a landlord can impose on the tenant.
rent control board
A group that monitors and enforces rent control.
rent with an option to buy
Agreement between the owner of a property and the potential buyer whereby the rent or a portion of the rent will be applied to a down payment on the property at a certain date.
(1) Cost to replace a structure with one of an equivalent value and function, but not necessarily identical in design or materials. (2) A property insurance concept. Replacement cost coverage applies only if the insured has maintained policy limits that bear a minimum insurance to value relationship to the actual replacement cost. That percent is often 80% but can be greater. Losses are paid on an actual cash value until actual repair and replacement has been completed. Replacement cost coverage usually does not include coverage for increased costs of construction to comply with changes in building codes unless the insured has separately requested and paid for such coverage.
replacement cost endorsement
Insurance endorsement used with a policy to insure that coverage is on a replacement cost basis.
In a tax-deferred exchange, the property purchased by the taxpayer.
Funds set aside for probable repair and replacement of common area components at some future time.
Books in which case law is published.
Occurs when a creditor seizes a piece of personal property to pay off a loan secured by the property.
A person authorized to receive benefits on your behalf from Social Security should you be unable to manage your own affairs.
request for continued examination (RCE)
An RCE is a later patent application which you file in order to keep alive the prosecution of your previously filed patent application. You usually file an RCE when you are up against a final rejection from your examiner and want a second chance to advance your arguments before your application goes abandoned.
request for evidence (RFE)
Document issued by a USCIS office or service center requesting additional evidence or information to prove the alien's case.
request for production
A written request from one party to another asking for specific documents and other things for reviewing and copying.
res ipsa loquitur
A principle that applies in tort law wherein the jury may infer that the defendant is negligent if an event occurs involving an item that is within the defendant's exclusive control and it typically would not have caused injury to the plaintiff but for some negligence on the part of the defendant.
Returning the parties to a contract to their positions before the contract. This may not always be possible as the subject matter of the contract cannot always be returned.
Document prepared every three years by the association showing the physical condition of the property which it is obligated to monitor, the funds allocated for its upkeep and maintenance and the planned annual use of those funds.
Funds set aside for special purposes, specifically, to enable an association to meet nonrecurring and/or major expenses.
Person in the county where estate is probated who is appointed by the court to accept any notice or service of summons in the estate proceeding.
A permanent resident or someone on an extended nonimmigrant visa, but not a tourist visa.
Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI)
A form used to evaluate a long-term care facility resident's physical and emotional health and capabilities.
A group of nursing home patients who meet to discuss issues and problems associated with the nursing home.
Book or manual setting out the basic rules and customs of the association and useful information about the general community.
Person who lives in the community and acts as manager.
Vote by membership on fundamental changes in the CC&Rs or to recall a member of the Board.
An agent of a nursing home resident designated to represent the resident in dealings with the facility and others; usually a family member of the resident.
Term used to describe the parent with whom a child primarily resides.
residential real property
A house, apartment, condominium, mobile home, or any type of home where a tenant resides.
Person who receives remaining property that has not been given away in a trust or will, or person who receives property only after the original beneficiary has died.
Residual income is basically money that you have earned and will come to you each and every month for the rest of your life. The key to financial success is residual income. Real Estate over time will allow you to build enough residual income to live your life the way you want. This income will not go away even if you lose your job. There are many worksheets on the internet or financial planners who can provide you with tools to determine how much money you will need to retire.
Balance of an estate after all specific gifts have been distributed.
A certain amount of marital assets, determined by federal law, that a noninstitutionalized spouse may own, regardless of the institutionalized spouse's resources for purposes of Medicaid eligibility.
Occasional care provided by a facility to a nonresident senior in order to give the primary caregivers temporary relief from their caregiving responsibility.
The legal doctrine that imposes vicarious liability on an employer for the negligence of its employees.
(1) The party answering a petition. This person may also be called a defendant. (2) The name given to an alien who is in removal proceedings before the immigration court; similar to a defendant in a criminal proceeding.
response or reply
After you receive an office action from the PTO, you will need to make a response/reply to the action within the specified time period or else your application will go abandoned.
This involves restating the terms of the inter-vivos trust and acts as an amendment as a way to revoke the trust.
If you claim more than one separate invention in your patent application, your examiner will issue this. In this case, you will need to elect the invention that you want to pursue in your current application and cancel all claims to the invention(s) which you do not elect. You have the option of filing divisional applications for any of the non-elected inventions so those inventions do not become lost as a result of this requirement.
Limitations on the use of a piece of property.
(1) Clause in a deed or lease that denies the buyer or lessor full rights to the property in question. (2) A noncompete agreement. An agreement that an employee will not compete with a former employer after the employment terminates.
Fee paid to a professional, such as a lawyer, in advance for future services.
Taking adverse action against an employee for exercising rights protected by law.
Demanding a tenant leave in response to a legitimate action taken by the tenant, such as reporting the landlord for health code violations. If the eviction is considered retaliatory, it is illegal.
Planned community for those of retirement age, providing attractively sized and priced dwelling units, and offering construction features, amenities and locations for aging residents.
return on investment (ROI)
Percentage of profit returned in relation to the original amount invested in a project.
A decision by the Internal Revenue Service on a tax question.
Income accrued through any source that benefits the association.
reverse annuity mortgage (RAM)
Mortgage that uses present equity in the property to fund monthly payments from the lender to the borrower in lieu of the borrower receiving the proceeds of the loan in a lump sum. (This type of mortgage is popular with the elderly.)
Discrimination against members of an historically advantaged group, which results from treating members of an historically disadvantaged group more favorably. Quota systems and some affirmative action plans can amount to reverse discrimination.
A mortgage loan whereby the borrower receives money but is not obligated to repay it until no longer residing at the mortgaged property. Under current law, a borrower must be age 62 to qualify. All reverse mortgage loans are nonrecourse loans.
Clause providing that any violations of restrictions will cause title to the property to go back to the party who imposed the restrictions.
Revised Uniform Partnership Act (RUPA)
A standardized partnership law, created as an improvement on the UPA, which has been adopted by many states.
When a legal document becomes enforceable again after being unenforceable for a time.
A trust, such as a living trust, the maker of which has full right and ability to change, amend, or revoke.
The recalling or cancellation of a previously granted power.
Open lines of credit that are subject to variable payments in accordance with the balance.
Addendum to a performance agreement containing special requirements of the musical act as a condition for performing.
Additional clause(s) in a real estate contract that are required by local law.
right of first refusal
Right given by an owner stating that if the owner decides to sell the property, this person will have the first opportunity to purchase it.
right of ingress or egress
In real estate, it is the right to enter or leave a portion of the property.
right of redemption
In some states, a right permitting the borrower to reclaim foreclosed property by making full payment of the foreclosure sales price within a specified period of time.
right of representation
To take the place, for inheritance purposes, of a deceased ancestor. For example, if a will leaves a testator's estate to "my issue by right of representation" and the testator leaves two living children and one deceased child who left two children of his or her own, then the estate would go one-third to each of the living children of the testator and one-sixth to each of the children of the deceased child of the testator.
right of survivorship
Term specifically required by some states to be included in the title of property held in joint tenancy to indicate that the property passes on death to the joint owner outside of probate.
right of way
Right to pass over land owned by another. Also, a strip of land used for a street or railway.
A state law that prohibits collective bargaining agreements from containing union security clauses.
Rights of owners to the water and land within the normal flow of a river or stream, or below a high water mark. (These rights vary with state laws.)
Chance of a loss from a hazard.
Proactive and preventive systems designed to identify, address or avoid future problems.
Robert's Rules of Order
Recognized formal guidelines for conducting a business meeting.
A thesaurus provides a list of synonyms and antonyms for the work you are looking up.
Form required in conjunction with an immigration court proceeding where an application must be paid for at the USCIS cashier prior to filing with the court. Form allows the USCIS cashier to return the paid application to the applicant so that it may be filed with the immigration court at the instruction of the immigration judge.
Payment to the owner of a copyright for the use of a work.
rural housing service (RHS)
Government agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture that offers various financing programs available for the development of rural America.
A tax option for corporations formed under subchapter S of the federal Tax Code in which shareholders can unanimously consent to be taxed like a partnership, permitting income and expense to flow through to their personal tax returns. Originally designed to avoid double taxation yet preserve limited liability, the S corporation form is now giving way in some states to the LLC (limited liability corporation).
Any rule considered within the law or disclaimers to avoid liability.
Financing arrangement where a developer sells a property to an investor then buys it back on a long-term sales contract.
Sales arrangement where a seller deeds a property to a buyer for consideration. The seller then leases the same property back from its new owner.
The proceeds from the transfer of your product or service into the hands of a consumer.
Written agreement between buyer and seller stating terms and conditions of a sale or exchange of property.
A tax imposed on the sale of goods and services. It is usually measured as a percentage of the retail price. Many states levy this type of tax.
A person who applies for a job in order to unionize the workplace once hired.
Digitally copying a sound from another recording.
scénes á faire
Scenes or incidents that are indispensable to the telling of a certain type of story.
Checking the background of a prospective tenant. This may include a credit report, verification of employment, reference of a prior landlord, etc.
Computer program which enables a person to find information, especially websites, on the Internet.
Mortgage on which payments have been made regularly for a year or longer.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, which is charged with the administration and enforcement of federal securities laws.
second injury fund
A special fund established under state workers' compensation laws. Second (or subsequent) injury funds share responsibility for benefits due employees who have pre-existing, nondisabling conditions and who become disabled through the combined effects of the preexisting condition and a subsequent injury.
A legal instrument that pledges a piece of real property to guarantee payment of a loan on a piece of property that has another (first) mortgage previously in place.
second parent adoption
Adoption situation where a partner adopts the child of his or her partner.
An adoption of a child by his or her stepparent.
One that purchases an existing mortgage loan rather than the lender that originates the loan.
The purchase of existing mortgages by other lenders. (This usually does not increase mortgage payments, but can effect the benefits offered with the mortgage loan.)
secondary mortgage market
The buying and selling of existing mortgage loans.
Elected officer on the Board of Directors responsible for all association documentation and records.
Legal division or parcel of land on a government survey comprising one square or 640 acres.
section 1031 intermediary
A person who holds the proceeds of a real estate transaction until the seller finds a new property that qualifies for an exchange under Section 1031 of the Internal Revenue Code.
Section 125 plan
A benefit plan that offers cash, or a variety of benefits in lieu of cash from which the employee may choose. Cash payments are taxable to the employee, but qualified benefits are not.
section 212(c) relief
Where a lawful permanent resident who has committed crimes involving moral turpitude but not an aggravated felony may seek to stop removal before an immigration judge upon a sufficient demonstration of the existence of certain positive factors or equities on his behalf.
section 245(i) eligible
One who is eligible to file the I-485A Supplement and pay the $1000 penalty and adjust status.
Section 2503(c) trust
Trust that allows a grantor to make gifts of $10,000 a year to a trust for the future benefit of minor children without the grantor incurring gift taxes.
Federal housing assistance.
secured credit card
A credit card in which the debtor gives a certain amount of money to the bank to be used as a security. The debtor charges items and repays them and the security interest is held in case there is a failure to pay.
A loan in which you borrow money or buy a certain item and give the creditor a security interest or collateral in an item. For example, a car loan.
Items purchased or financed through a loan that gives the creditor a security interest in them.
Interests in a business, such as stocks or bonds.
Securities Act of 1933
The federal law, including amendments, pertaining to the offering of securities administrated by the SEC.
Securities Exchange Act of 1934
The federal law, including amendments, pertaining to the trading of securities, stock exchanges, firms, and brokers administrated by the SEC.
An investment agreement in which one person put up money with the expectation of making a profit from the efforts of others.
A certain amount of money deposited by the tenant prior to commencement of the lease to assure the landlord of the tenant's full and faithful performance.
security deposit statement
A written statement provided by the landlord after the end of the tenancy. It itemizes the amount of the tenant's deposits followed by an accounting of the deductions from the deposits.
Mortgage using real estate as collateral for the loan.
The right maintained by a creditor to repossess or take back an item you borrowed money to buy if you fail to make payments.
Divided by some common characteristic. Often refers to division along racial lines.
These are the remedies that a tenant may use when the dwelling is in need of some type of repair and the landlord has yet to correct the problem.
Not purchasing an insurance policy for known perils. Being prepared to pay the cost of events that are normally insured against such as fire, flood, weather destruction, inventory loss, etc.
Plan of running a community whereby unit owners carry out policy decisions of and handle affairs for an association; also self management structure.
An alien of extraordinary ability, a battered spouse, or the widow or widower of a U.S. citizen who had been married to that citizen for at least two years.
A will in which at least two witnesses took an oath, included in the will, at the time the will was signed, and in which both the witnesses' and the decedent's signatures were notarized by a qualified notary public. (Florida Statute, Section 732.503.)
A document used in most states so that a witness will not be needed to testify in court to prove a will offered for probate is the last will of testament of the decedent.
If a will is self-proving under the law of a particular state, nearly all states will permit the admission to probate of uncontested wills without testimony of a witness to the will. In California, a will is self-proving if the witnesses attest, under penalty of perjury, that the will was properly executed.
The real estate agent who represents the seller of the property in the transaction.
A period during which there is a high demand for homes, creating an advantage to sellers. Prices rise in a seller's market.
A lien that is superior to another lien. A senior lien will be paid before liens subordinate to it.
Apartments for seniors that may have special medical alert systems and activity programs.
A first mortgage.
A system followed by management, either by custom or pursuant to a collective bargaining agreement with its unions, under which an employee with greater longevity will be favored for promotion or reassignment over otherwise equally qualified candidates.
Another name for alimony, used in some states.
Property that belongs entirely to one person.
1) To be given official, legal notice of lawsuit papers. 2) Delivered by a sheriff 's deputy or other person legally authorized to make official delivery of legal papers. See service.
The process of serving a person with notice that a lawsuit is pending against him or her. Unless waived by the parties, service of process is usually done by a person authorized by the court like a sheriff or process server.
A business that sells services not a product, for example, a dry cleaner.
service by publication
Serving notice of a case by publication in a newspaper, or by posting on a bulletin board of a courthouse or other public facility, when other types of service are impractical or have been unsuccessful. This procedure is not used in every state.
One of the several remote processing facilities. Each service center accepts certain petitions and application from people that live in the states within its jurisdiction.
Identifying name or design to identify and distinguish one service provider from another. Like a trademark except applies to services and not goods.
service of process
The delivery of a summons and complaint to a party for the purpose of obtaining jurisdiction over that party.
The one from whom the borrower receives the monthly statement and makes the payment, if different from the mortgagee.
A performance rights society.
(1) The resolution of a legal dispute in which the parties agree on the amount the defendant must pay the plaintiff. (2) An agreement that is reached between a debtor and creditor that solves or eliminates the dispute. (3) Another name for a real estate closing.
Money paid by borrowers and sellers to effect the closing of a mortgage loan, including payments for title insurance, survey, attorney fees, and such prepaid items as taxes and insurance escrow.
See closing date.
See HUD-1 Uniform Settlement Statement.
Another term for creator of a trust. See also grantor, donor.
A provision in a contract that says that if a court declares one provision of the contract invalid, it does not invalidate the entire contract.
sexually transmitted disease (STD)
A disease that is spread through sexual contact between two people.
shared appreciation mortgage (SAM)
A loan that entitles the lender to part of the profit from the future sale of the property. The property may also be refinanced at the future date to pay off the lender, with the profit based on the appraised value.
Another term for joint custody.
A newer and perhaps more accurate term for joint care and responsibility of a child, this term seeks to recognize that both parents play a significant role in the upbringing of a child and therefore does away with old notions that one parent has custody and the other has visitation.
Individuals or entities who own the securities (shares/stocks) of a company.
The total number of shares of stock held by all shareholders.
Faith financing that is sanctioned by the Shariah Supervisory Board of America, a panel of ten Islamic scholars that monitors financial products targeting Muslims.
A corporation with no active business on its own and generally serves only as a vehicle for the business of another entity.
A guide to determining if cases and statutes are still valid law, and for finding other sources related to them
The act of using Shepard's Citations.
sheriff 's deed
Deed given by court order when a property is sold to satisfy a judgment or tax lien.
Acceptance by a lender of an amount less than the total owed on a mortgage loan as full payment. The purpose is to avoid the time and cost of foreclosure. The most common use of a short sale is when there is little or no equity in the property and little or no chance of collecting on a deficiency judgment.
The time period which the PTO sets for your response/reply to an office action or other communication. The period is usually three months although it can be shorter. It is called "shortened" because there is a statute which provides an absolute six month time limit for responding to all Actions from the PTO.
A license to use a product that is triggered by the opening of the packaging of the product.
People who are given the responsibility to sign documents.
Small card used for thumbprint in conjunction with an application for employment authorization at some service centers or possibly the I-89 card used in ADIT processing.
Detached dwelling designed for occupancy by one family.
A program for borrowers under which the lender pays the PMI and passes the cost to the borrower in the interest rate.
Drawing that shows all improvements to be done on a site, such as clearing, grading, and the installation of public utilities.
Value of land without improvements, as if vacant.
skilled care facility
See long-term care facility.
skilled nursing facility
A nursing home.
Lease of air rights.
A defamatory statement made orally.
Small Business Administration (SBA)
A federal agency created in 1953 to provide assistance to small businesses by guaranteeing loans through financial institutions and assisting the management of qualified businesses.
Small Corporate Offering Registration (SCOR)
An SEC-exempt offering for the sale of securities up to the amount of $1 million that must be qualified under state blue sky laws. Also known as ULOR.
small entity status
Qualifying for small entity status basically gives you a 50% reduction in all fees.
Social Security number (SSN)
Can be used to pay your business taxes if the IRS does not require you to have an EIN.
A professional who performs home studies and assists families with adjustments to adoptions.
Defined as oral or anal intercourse; illegal in some states.
soft tissue injury
Neck and/or back strains and sprains involving damage to the connective tissues. This type of injury does not show up on radiological testing and is therefore often considered by the insurance company to be faked or at least exaggerated.
Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act
A federal law that allows certain military members out of their lease obligation if they are transferred to another location during the course of their tenancy.
Another name for separate property or nonmarital property, used in some states.
The only owner of a business and usually the only worker in it.
A business form with a single owner in which the owner has total control, total liability, and the proceeds of the business are taxed at the proprietor's individual rate.
somatic nuclear cloning
Replacing the nucleus of a cell with a cell from another person.
Organization that administers royalty payments for digitally downloaded material.
Company that collects data from sales of recordings. Used to determine the Billboard charts.
Fee levied against unit owners to cover unexpected expenses.
special assessment district
Government created subdivision with the power to tax and improve property within its jurisdiction.
Damages for past, present and future medical bills, property damage and lost earnings.
An employer who has borrowed an employee from another employer (called the general employer) for a limited time period and has temporary responsibility and control over the employee's work.
Unscheduled meeting called by Board or membership to discuss urgent business.
special needs child
A child that has a physical or mental disability.
special power of attorney
See limited power of attorney.
special warranty deed
A deed in which the grantor only warrants that he or she has not done anything that would cloud the title, not that he or she has good title.
The gift of a specific item of personal property to a specific person in a will.
The gift of a specific parcel of real property to a specific person in a will.
This is basically everything that makes up your patent application, minus your drawings.
A tax associated with the sell of property purchased with the intent of making a quick profit at sale.
The transfer of an individual's assets in a certain manner that is allowable under federal Medicaid statutes and allows the individual to reach the threshold level for resources below which the individual is eligible for Medicaid.
Provision included in some trusts that prohibits the beneficiary from giving or selling to others the beneficiary's rights to the trust's assets or income.
Male reproductive cell.
Male who donates sperm to be used by a woman or couple to conceive a baby. Sperm donors can be anonymous or known.
The dividing of responsibilities for two or more children between the parents. For example, in a split custody situation, mom may take custody of child A and dad of child B with the noncustodial parents (and the siblings) having visitation.
An individual or company who is filing a petition on behalf of his or her relative or employee, or a joint sponsor who is filing an affidavit of support.
Government zoning on a lot by lot basis, following no prescribed pattern or plan.
Another term, used in some states, for alimony. See alimony.
springing power of attorney
A power of attorney that becomes effective only upon the happening of an event named in it.
A form that is used to apply for the federal tax identification.
Appraiser who works as an employee for a mortgage company, as opposed to the company hiring an independent firm to appraise properties.
Software program for purchasing postage and tracking packages.
Standard Industrial Classification system (SIC).
A system of four-digit numbers used to classify industries. The SIC system is being replaced by NAICS.
standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA)
Central city area and its surrounding suburbs and small jurisdictions.
standard of care
A legal principle that applies in negligence cases and governs whether or not conduct of the defendant is up to the standard that applies to the reasonably prudent practitioner in that profession.
standard of proof
The level of proof that is required in a criminal or civil case. In a civil case the standard of proof is typically what is called the preponderance of the evidence. In a criminal case the standard of proof is typically proof beyond a reasonable doubt.
Living trust that takes effect if a grantor becomes ill or incapacitated or dies. The grantor's assets are transferred to the trust and managed by the designated trustee.
Term for whether you meet the legal requirements to file a particular kind of lawsuit.
Group of people formed to handle ongoing business on a certain subject.
The interest rate at the beginning of an adjustable rate mortgage loan. The rate lasts for a short period and then changes to the permanent rate formula of the index plus margin.
Beginning home that is less than what the buyer really wants; typically purchased for the purposes of building credit and experience in home ownership.
Number of residential housing units begun within a stated period of time.
state banking authority
An agency that governs the banks and financial institutions within a state.
state employment security agency (SESA)
Agency that operates with the Department of Labor to ensure that there is no available U.S. worker for a particular position that is sought by an immigrant
State Parent Locator Services (SPLS)
Part of the state's child support enforcement agency, the SPLS locates absent parents in order to establish and enforce child support obligations, visitation, and custody orders or to establish paternity.
In accordance with state laws, the requirement that certain items or business be listed with the states where they reside. An example is your car that is registered in your state.
statement of claim
A written statement of facts explaining on what basis a demand for payment from the decedent's estate is being made.
statement of income and expense
Financial report that indicates how much income has been earned and what expenses have been incurred over a certain period of time and compares budgeted and actual figures for the period in question and year to date.
A law passed by a state or the federal government.
statute of frauds
A provision in state law requiring certain contracts to be in writing to be enforceable in court.
statute of limitations
A provision in law that bars lawsuits that are not filed within a specified time period.
Statute of Uses
Law passed in England in 1536 that made most land trusts illegal.
Laws passed by the federal congress or state legislators. County and city laws are called ordinances.
statutes of fraud
State laws requiring that certain contracts be in writing; including contracts for the sale of real property.
Money awarded because statutory law requires it.
A person who, by law, is classified as an employee for income tax, workers' compensation, or other purposes, even though he or she might otherwise qualify as an independent contractor.
Laws created by state, federal, or local legislative bodies.
Sexual contact between a person and another person who is too young to be legally able to consent to the sexual contact.
The amount set by law as the royalty rate for a compulsory mechanical license.
statutory warranty deed
A legal instrument that uses the language of a state statute to convey an interest in a property.
A court order to stop a legal process in progress. For example, a bankruptcy court could stay (stop) an eviction or foreclosure proceeding. The owner or lender would then have to ask the court to lift the stay (grant a relief of stay).
stay of deportation
An application made on Form I-246 and filed with the Deportation Office to request that a scheduled deportation be delayed for extenuating circumstances.
Agreement between the parties to a legal dispute on a specific point. This eliminates the need to prove the point.
stipulation for judgment
Settlement procedure where a judgment is signed by agreement but not filed as long as an agreed series of periodic payments is paid in full and where, if there is a default as to a payment, the judgment may be entered by the court for the full stipulated amount, less payments made. If the agreed amount is timely paid, a dismissal is filed and there is no judgment recorded. Therefore no negative public record is made.
Development where a corporation has title to the real property and the owners of the corporation have a right of exclusive occupancy of a portion of that real estate along with their ownership of stock in the corporation.
Person who entered illegally by traveling on a commercial transportation such as a train, bus, or boat where a fare should have been paid.
Person to whom a property is conveyed temporarily in order to clear the title.
Group who provides promotional services to a musical act, such as passing out flyers advertising shows.
Type of foreclosure proceeding used in some states in which title to the foreclosed property is invested directly in the mortgagee by court decree, without holding a foreclosure sale.
A principle in tort law wherein a defendant may be held liable even though there is no evidence of negligence. Such an activity may include a blasting case wherein blasting activities cause damage to an adjoining property owner.
Holding one responsible for damages even though reasonable care was used to prevent the damage or injury. The plaintiff must still show that the defendant owed a duty to the plaintiff and that the plaintiff's actions caused the damages.
An unsecured loan that is usually offered through a bank or loan agency and backed by the government in order to pay for college. Student loans cannot be discharged in bankruptcy and are often a source of credit problems.
Person or company contracted to perform work for a developer or general contractor
Improved or unimproved land divided into a number of parcels for sale, lease financing, or development.
subject matter jurisdiction
This governs the authority of a court to hear particular types of cases.
The purchase of mortgaged property by one who acknowledges that there is a mortgage but assumes no liability for it. It differs from an assumption, under which the buyer agrees to pay the loan.
subjective evidence of injury
Proof of an injury where objective evidence is not available. This most commonly takes the form of the plaintiff's own testimony concerning pain and suffering and limitations in function and range of motion.
A lease between a tenant and a third party (subtenant). Subleasing is allowed unless the lease specifically prohibits it. Usually the lease states that approval of the landlord is required.
Subletting occurs when a tenant allows a third party to assume occupancy of the dwelling during all or part of the rental agreement between the landlord and the tenant.
A legal document notifying a witness that he or she must appear at a particular place and time to give testimony. This can either require appearance at court for a trial or hearing, or at some office for a deposition.
subpoena duces tecum
A particular kind of subpoena which also requires the person to bring documents or other items when they appear to testify.
Right of recovery for amounts already paid. For example, your insurance company may pay you for your property damage under your collision coverage and then assert its right of subrogation to recover that money from the insurance company for the driver who caused the accident.
A will that is signed by the testator at the end of the document and then signed by at least two witnesses.
Ownership of everything beneath the surface of the earth, such as oil and minerals.
The percent or successful pregnancies a clinic produces.
A person or entity (e.g. bank trust department) that serves as trustee of a trust document upon the resignation, removal or death of a trustee. For most inter-vivos trust, the person or entity you name to act as trustee once you are no longer able to do so.
A simplified probate proceeding that may be used if the total value of the estate is $25,000 or less, and there is no real property.
summary plan description
Description of a pension or retirement plan that lays out all the details of the plan.
Abbreviated trial where many factual and legal issues are stipulated to by the parties and only essential issues are decided by a jury, judge or arbitrator.
A notice to a defendant that an action against him or her has been filed in court and that a judgment will be taken against him or her if the complaint is not answered within a certain time.
Lien or encumbrance (for example a mortgage or mechanics lien) on real estate whose priority is greater (or superior) to other's interest in the same property.
The minimal amount of a spouse's elective share when married less than one year in a state where the spouse's elective share is a based on the duration of the marriage. It is typically a somewhat complicated calculation, starting with a minimal amount and subtracting what was received through certain other legal provisions (such as the homestead and family allowance). Where referred to in appendix B, you will need to read the law of that particular state to figure out exactly what this would be in a given situation.
supplemental application data sheet
An application data sheet which you submit to correct any errors in the previous application data sheet which you submitted to the PTO.
A subsequent response/reply that you make after having previously responded/replied to an office action from the PTO. You are allowed to make as many supplemental replies as you want, so long as they do not unduly interfere with your examiner's action on your prior response(s)/replie(s).
An order setting the amount of child support. Support orders may also cover health care, payment of arrearages, or reimbursement of costs, fees, interest, and penalties.
The provision in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution stating that the Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties "shall be the supreme Law of the Land" binding in every state.
A surety bond posted by the executor is in an amount equal to the value of the personal property of estate (real property does not have to be bonded as it cannot be sold without consent of the beneficiaries or the court). It is an inexpensive form of insurance to guarantee that the executor will act honestly.
surplus lines insurer
See admitted insurer.
An arrangement whereby a woman carries a child for another person or another couple.
A contract made with a surrogate in which she agrees to carry the couple's child and allow them to become the child's legal parents. It often includes provisions for the intended parents to pay her expenses through the pregnancy.
(1) A woman who carried a pregnancy for the intended parent(s) without any legal ties to the child. (2) Another term for the agent in a health care power of attorney.
(1) The official measurement of the dimensions of a piece of property. (2) Measurement of the land by a registered surveyor; produces the legal description of the property with references to known points, dimensions, buildings, and natural items (trees, rocks, and streams).
Formal statement, signed, certified, and dated by a surveyor, giving the pertinent facts about a particular property and any easements or encroachments affecting it.
A trust created at death for the benefit of the decedent's spouse that takes advantage of federal estate tax exemptions, and the surviving spouse has the power to make changes to it.
The right to use a song accompanied by video images. Also called a synch license.
take home babies
The percent or number of children conceived through ART that are born and go home with their parents. This rate is usually the most accurate way to evaluate a clinic since it does not count failed pregnancies.
Borrower's paycheck after taxes and other deductions have been subtracted.
taking against the will
When a surviving spouse chooses to take the elective share of the estate, instead of taking what was left to him or her in the will.
See booking agent.
A form that can be seen or held.
The amount used as the cost of an item for tax purposes.
tax credit trust
See decedent's trust.
Something that the government allows you to subtract from your income before tax liability is computed.
Deed on property purchased at public sale for nonpayment of taxes.
A feature of some employee benefit plans, such as qualified pension plans, that permits the employee to exclude plan contributions from gross income for income tax purposes until a later time, such as retirement.
Freedom from liability on taxes that apply to others.
Claim against property for unpaid taxes.
Tax Refund Offset Program
This federal program intercepts tax refunds and other federal monies and reroutes the funds to pay past due child support.
Sale of property by a taxing authority or court acting on a judgment to satisfy the payment of delinquent taxes.
Twelve consecutive months in which a business calculates its taxable income and files its income tax return.
That portion of revenue that is subject to taxation.
See start rate.
Working at home or at a facility other than the employer's office that is connected with the office by high tech communications equipment.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's name for telecommuting.
Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF)
Public assistance payments made to poor families, based on Title IV-A of the Social Security Act. TANF replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) when the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) was signed into law in 1996. Applicants for TANF benefits are automatically referred to their State IV-D agency in order to establish paternity and child support for their children from the noncustodial parent. This allows the state to recoup or defray some of its public assistance expenditures with funds from the noncustodial parent.
temporary protected status (TPS)
Status given to aliens of certain countries where there is war, famine, or natural disaster, such as hurricanes, that allows the alien to work and obtain a social security number.
temporary resident alien
The correct term for someone granted the initial stage of the legalization process from the 1986 amnesty.
tenancy by the entirety
Type of joint tenancy available to married couples; includes the right of survivorship and protection from one spouse selling the home without the permission of the other.
tenancy in common
A way for two or more people to own property, whereby if one of the owners dies, his or her interest in the property passes to his or her heirs (not to the other co-owners).
Person renting real property.
Undivided interest in common with the other owners in a portion of real property known as the "common areas" of the project or development which are separate and distinct from the separate interest areas such as a unit or apartment.
tenants in common
A manner to hold property between two or more individuals. Each owner's share is based on his or her portion of ownership and does not transfer to the other owners automatically at death, but instead is part of a decedent's estate.
In a reverse mortgage, it is the term used to describe the program by which the borrower receives income for as long as he or she occupies the property as a primary residence.
Period of months or years needed to repay a mortgage.
A condition caused by injury, disease, or illness from which there is no reasonable probability of recovery and which, without treatment, can be expected to cause death.
Form in which you agree that any patent issuing from your application must expire on the same date as another patent which you also own.
terminal illness, injury, or condition
An illness or injury that is extremely likely to result in death. Some states require that death is likely to occur within a relatively short time, but do not say what constitutes a relatively short time.
The legal and mental capacity to execute a will. Generally defined as being 18 years of age or older and aware of one's assets, one's relatives, and knowledge that document takes effect at time of death.
A trust created by a person's will.
Dying with a valid will.
A person making a will.
A person who applies for a job for the sole purpose of testing the employer's hiring practices for discrimination.
The subject of a written work.
third party administrator (TPA)
A company that administers a health insurance plan but does not provide any insurance against the risk involved.
third party benefits
Those benefits obtainable from the other party's insurance company.
third party insurance
Also known as liability insurance. Insurance where the insurer assumes the liability to pay damages on behalf of an insured to a third party for a covered event, such as bodily injury or property damage.
As used in this book, a party who is neither a principal nor an agent under a power of attorney.
time off plan
An exception to the Fair Labor Standards Act's general overtime rules that allows an employer under certain narrow circumstances to award compensatory time to nonexempt employees in lieu of time and one half for overtime.
Tip Rate Alternative Commitment (TRAC)
An agreement between the IRS and an employer in the food and beverage industry under which the employer agrees to establish an educational program and reporting procedures designed to promote accurate tip reporting by employees, and the IRS agrees to assess payroll taxes based on tips as reported by employees.
Tip Rate Determination Agreement (TRDA)
An agreement between the IRS and an employer under which the IRS and the employer determine and agree in advance on the rate of tips to be reported by employees. TRDAs require at least 75% of the affected employees to join in the agreement.
(1) Ownership of property and instrument that is evidence of that ownership. (2) The registered ownership of a piece of property.
This is not title insurance. The binder says that if you do all the things the title company requires-like paying the purchase money and recording a deed-then they will issue title insurance when you pay the premium. A title binder is worthless if you don't complete all the steps and pay the premium.
Company that sells title insurance.
Insurance purchased to protect a buyer of property from claims of ownership by someone other than the seller.
Check of records to determine who owned the property and what liens have been placed on the property from the time the property was built.
System in which the holder of a mortgage (the lender) has actual title to the mortgaged property until the mortgage loan is repaid.
Examination of public records from the date of a previous title search to ascertain the status of title to property since such last search.
The sections of the Civil Rights Act that prohibit discrimination in employment.
TOD (also T/O/D)
Transfer on death. Usually used on bank account and in some states on securities.
The process of urinating and defecating.
top hat plan
See excess benefit plan.
topic and key number
A word, phrase or abbreviation, in bold face type, and a number, to which a digest refers you instead of a page number.
A method of registering the owner of real estate and all liens against the property. It is similar to a car title. Torrens systems are voluntary. They are allowed in some counties, in some states.
Certificate issued by a public authority called a registrar of titles, establishing title in an indicated owner; used when title to property is registered under the Torrens system of land registration.
A wrongful act, damage or injury for which a civil lawsuit can be brought.
Phrase coined by the insurance industry characterizing its efforts to change the laws regarding personal injury litigation.
The individual who caused the accident.
total expense ratio
Person's debts as a percentage of his or her gross income; usually calculated on a monthly basis.
A revocable trust established by depositing money in one's own name as trustee for another, with the usual goal to avoid probate over the property.
Money advanced by record label to pay for series of shows played by an act to promote a recording.
Row house on a small lot that has exterior limits common to other similar units. Title to the unit and its lot is vested in the individual buyer with a fractional interest in common areas.
Parcel of land.
Loan to a developer secured by land being subdivided.
A name used to identify the manufacturer of a product or group of products.
Business information, such as a customer list, formula, or process that has value because it is not widely known and its confidentiality is protected.
A distinguishing mark used to identify the manufacturer of a product or group of products.
The surrogate's own eggs are used in conjunction with sperm from the intended father to conceive a child. The surrogate is biologically related to the resulting child.
A real estate agent who puts a transaction together without being an agent of either party.
transfer of ownership
Action whereby ownership of a property changes hands.
transfer on death (TOD)
An account that passes directly to a designated beneficiary upon the owner's death.
State or city tax on the sale of a home.
Person who changes gender through medical and psychological treatment.
An introductory clause in your claim between the preamble and the body of the claim.
(1) Form that must often be included with submissions that you make to the PTO. The form gives the PTO information about what you are submitting. (2) A form that summarizes the data contained within a loan application.
Elected officer on the Board of Directors responsible for all financial oversight and strategy for the association.
One type of index used in ARMs based on auctions held by the U.S. Treasury for Bills and Securities.
Books that cover an entire field of law.
One who has no consent or right to be on another's property.
Courtroom proceeding which determines the outcome of a lawsuit.
A prosecutor employed by the Department of Homeland Security to represent it in immigration court, among other duties.
triple net lease
A landlord/tenant arrangement in which the tenant pays all the expenses of property ownership, such as taxes, insurance and maintenance. This is very common with commercial leases, and extremely uncommon with residential leases.
The standards set out by the Troxel v. Granville case, which says that a fit parent is presumed to act in the best interest of the child and their decisions must be given special weight.
Absence from school without an excuse.
An agreement in which one person is given property to hold for another person.
Another name for bypass trust.
Optional legal instrument that denotes ownership of an interest in a land trust.
See deed of trust.
A person named in a trust document who has legal title to the property contained therein, but holds and manages it for the benefit of the trust maker.
A legal instrument that transfers ownership of real property from a trustee to another party.
The borrower under a deed of trust.
Truth in Lending Act
Law enacted to provide information for consumers who are requesting credit.
See Regulation Z.
A program that calls for a one-time adjustment in the interest rate of the mortgage loan after five or seven years. Once the loan adjusts, there are no further changes for the rest of the term.
Type 1 Escrow
Account that contains earnest money from the buyer and held by a third party, which will eventually be part of the buyer's payment to the seller.
Type 2 Escrow
Account used for payments of insurance and taxes.
A person born in the U.S., or born outside the U.S. to a U.S. citizen parent, or a person naturalized.
See excess insurance.
An insurance policy that provides coverage over the basic amount provided in a liability policy.
A clause in a contract that is so unfair (although not against the law) that a court cannot in good conscience enforce it. The clause must be unfair at the formation of the contract and the court can choose to enforce the rest of the contract.
Not having enough money to soundly operate.
(1) The process by which an insurer evaluates an application for coverage to determine whether the risk is acceptable for coverage, and if so, the premium to be charged. (2) The process used by a lender to evaluate the application of a borrower seeking to get a mortgage loan.
Someone who entered the U.S. illegally across a border without a visa.
Payments to a former employee who was terminated from a job for a reason not based on his or her fault.
A federal/state system funded by employers, under which employees who have involuntarily lost their jobs receive temporary benefits.
Property that is free and clear of debts or liens.
unfair labor practice (ULP)
Conduct by an employer or a union that violates the National Labor Relations Act.
The federal credit against estate taxes that is allowed to each person or estate.
uniform business report
A form filed annually by an LLC in some states.
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC)
A set of laws passed by all fifty states which governs commercial transactions.
Uniform Partnership Act (UPA)
A standardized partnership law that has been adopted by many states.
Uniform Residential Appraisal Report (URAR)
Form used by appraisers of residential properties to estimate the value to be financed with FHA, VA, or conventional mortgages.
Uniform Residential Landlord and Tenant Act (URLTA
The Act laid the basic framework for many of our current landlord and tenant laws. Its provisions have been adopted by a large number of states.
Uniform Transfers on Death Securities Registration
An act allowing investment or other accounts is to be re-registered on request after the owner's death in the name of a beneficiary.
Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rig
USERRA requires service members on military leave to continue to be carried as employees for certain benefit and seniority purposes and to be reemployed when they return from military leave.
union security clause
A provision in a collective bargaining agreement that protects union membership or revenue. A union security clause may require that employees be union members in order to be hired (closed shop), that they join a union after being hired (union shop), or that, in the case of nonunion employees, they pay dues as if they were members (agency shop).
A type of union security arrangement under which employees are required to join a union within a specified time after hire.
United States Citizenship and Immigration Services
Agency that comprises the benefits side of the former INS. It is part of the new Department of Homeland Security
The name for the legal action to evict someone from property.
Time that an alien is in the U.S. illegally or out of status since April 1, 1997.
unlimited marital deduction
Allows a spouse to transfer all property to his or her spouse without federal estate tax.
A loan in which the creditor does not hold a security interest in an item you own. Most credit cards are unsecured.
Real estate agent's way of referring to upper middle class, but not fabulously wealthy, people.
A tax paid in place of a sales tax.
A credit card account set up in one person's name that has a card issued to another person so that he or she may charge against the account. The person who holds the account is ultimately responsible for payments.
Fees collected for the use of facilities such as extra parking or storage spaces and other similar charges.
Charging borrowers a rate of interest greater than that permitted by law.
Maximum legal rate, established by some state's laws, for interest, discounts, or other fees that may be charged for the use of money.
usury saving clause
Clause in a loan document intended to protect the lender from a claim that an unlawful amount of interest is being charged.
Basic services associated with developed areas that include provisions for electricity, telephone, gas, water, and garbage collection.
One of three types of patents which are granted. This is a general patent and will probably be the type of patent which you will want to seek.
This is based on a statute and requires that your invention as described in your patent application has a specific, substantial, and credible use.
New benefit from LIFE Act that allows spouses or minor unmarried children of green card holders after three years wait on the I-130 petition to obtain lawful nonimmigrant status in the U.S. or enter the U.S. if abroad in order to wait the remaining years on their visa petition.
Mortgage loan made by an approved lender and guaranteed by the Department of Veterans Affairs. (VA loans are made to eligible veterans and those currently serving in the military, and can have a lower down payment than other types of loans.)
Estimation of a property's price through appraisal.
Pay, such as bonuses or commissions, that may vary in amount depending on productivity, company profitability, or other factors.
variable rate mortgage
See adjustable rate mortgage.
Approved special change in construction codes, zoning requirements, or other property use restrictions.
Individuals or institutions that fund early stage, high risk businesses. They generally want some ownership in the business and expect a 20% to 50% return on investment.
The place where a trial can properly take place. Proper venue is usually found where the accident happened or where one or more of the defendants lives or does substantial business
verification of deposit (VOD)
Document that lists details of a financial transaction.
verification of employment (VOE)
Form that requests and secures documentation of a mortgage applicant's work history and occupation, to assist in the lender's credit investigation.
verification of mortgage
Form that requests and secures verification of payments made on an applicant's current or past mortgage.
A complaint which has been signed by a party under oath (such as before a notary public or the court clerk).
Nonforfeitable. When pension plan benefits are vested, they belong to the employee, even if employment ends or the plan is terminated.
Legal rights that are currently possessed, as opposed to rights that will not be possessed until some time in the future.
Health-insurance benefits provided to honorably discharged military personnel.
Veterans Affairs (VA)
An agency of the United States government that, among other things, guarantees home loans for veterans.
Veterans Health Administration (VHA)
An agency under the VA that provides health services to military veterans.
vial of life
A program run by many sheriff departments, where a person keeps a vial on the refrigerator with health information and emergency contact information.
Term used to refer to the practice of selling a life insurance policy to a company who makes an immediate cash payment, but then becomes the beneficiary of the proceeds from the policy at your death.
Liability imposed on an employer for the negligence of an employee that occurs in the course and scope of employment.
vice president of the board
Elected officer who fulfills the President's responsibilities in his or her absence and generally oversees the work of Committees.
Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act
VEVRAA prohibits most federal contractors from discriminating against Vietnam-era and disabled veterans and requires affirmative action to ensure equal employment opportunity.
Any situation on a piece of property that does not comply with a law or regulation.
An immigration document that allows you to enter a country.
Information updated monthly by the Department of State available by mail, Internet, or phone showing which preference categories are currently available.
See diversity visa
Either the alien relative I-130 petition or the employment based I-140 petition filed on behalf of a beneficiary.
Entry into the U.S. without a visa from a changing list of approximately twenty countries whose citizens are known to respect U.S. immigration laws.
The court-ordered right given to a parent (or another) who does not have custody to see and care for their child during specific time periods.
Used in real estate as phrase "null and void" meaning no longer in effect.
The questioning of potential jurors before a trial to determine if they have any biases.
Elective transfer of property from a defaulting borrower to the lender, as an alternative to foreclosure. This arrangement saves the lender the expense of foreclosure, and the borrower receives credit for payment in full.
Granted by an immigration judge or a USCIS officer where the alien agrees to leave the U.S. at his or her own expense by a certain date in lieu of deportation and the effects of a deportation order.
voluntary payment clause
An important liability coverage condition. Most policies provide that the insurer has no obligation to reimburse an insured for any payment made by an insured in connection with a claim without the insurer's prior permission.
In construction lending, a system of paying subcontractors vouchers in lieu of cash; they then redeem the documents to the construction lender for actual payment.
IRS form which reports income paid and taxes withheld by an employer for a particular employee during a calendar year.
IRS form which determines the amount of Federal taxes the employer will withhold from a person's paycheck each pay period.
A voluntary agreement by an employee to assign future wages to pay debts, such as child support.
A procedure by which scheduled deductions are automatically made from wages or income to pay a debt, such as child support. Wage withholding often is incorporated into the child support order and may be voluntary or mandatory.
See Chapter 13.
The giving up of a right. For example, accepting late rent without charging the agreed upon late charge may be a waiver of future right to the late charge.
(1) Surrender of a right or privilege. (2) Legal document used to give another person permission to either do or not do something that was required. (3) Generally, one of the several forms, such as I-212, I-601, I-602 or I-612, used to waive or negate a condition of inadmissibility such as entry on a false passport or criminal record.
A person who has been declared incompetent and had a guardian appointed.
A certificate giving its holder the right to purchase securities at a defined price within a specified time.
(1) A guarantee as to the condition of a property. (2) The insurance policy some sellers get on certain expensive items in the house to pay the buyers in case the item is defective.
A legal instrument in which a person conveys an interest in property and guarantees that he or she is giving good title to the property.
warranty of habitability
The warranty of habitability requires that the landlord keep up the premises to a minimum level of habitability, regardless of the rental agreement.
Software that enables a person to read information on the World Wide Web.
One page on the Internet. A group of web pages will comprise a website.
Where information is found on the World Wide Web, or Internet.
weekly benefit amount (WBA)
For unemployment insurance purposes, the amount a claimant is entitled to (but for any disqualification) as determined from his or her base period wages.
A person or group that provides information and gifts from local merchants to new residents; can be a useful source of information.
Welfare-to-Work tax credit
A federal tax credit allowed to employers who hire long-term family assistance recipients.
An online legal database. That provides access to entire libraries of legal information.
An employee who discloses fraud or other wrongdoing by an employer.
white collar exemptions
Exemptions from the Fair Labor Standards Act's overtime requirements for persons employed in bona fide executive, administrative, or professional capacities and as outside salespersons.
See reentry passport.
A document that, at someone's death, directs the distribution of his or her assets. A will generally cannot affect the distribution of assets held in joint tenancy, distributed pursuant to a contract (life insurance, pensions, retirement plans, annuities, etc.), or property subject to a "payable on death" or "transfer on death" designation.
The acts connected with closing business operations upon the dissolution of a partnership.
withholding of removal
Requires a showing that it is more likely than not that one faces persecution on the basis of political opinion, religion, gender, nationality, or membership in a particular social group.
A court order in a domestic relations case, similar to a garnishment, requiring an employer to withhold and turn over a portion of an employee's earnings to cover the employee's family support obligations.
Amount of money your business withholds from your employees' wages for their income, Social Security, and Medicare obligations.
A person who sees a testator sign his or her will and signs the will after the testator. A witness must be eighteen years or older, aware that the document he or she is signing is a will, and not a beneficiary under the will who takes any more than he or she would have under intestate succession.
work for hire
A work made by a person who grants all rights in the work to the person who paid for it.
Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC)
A federal tax credit allowed to employers who hire persons in targeted groups- recipients of assistance under TANF, veterans, ex-felons, summer youths, food stamp recipients, and SSI recipients.
See employment authorization document.
A product created or invented by an employee for his or her employer, the copyright or patent rights of which belong to the employer.
An agreement between the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and a state or local Fair Employment Practice Agency that allocates responsibility for processing charges of employment discrimination. Work-sharing agreements usually provide that a filing with one agency constitutes a filing with the other agency as well.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act
A federal law that requires employers with 100 or more employees to give sixty days' advance notice of a mass layoff or plant closing.
A state statutory arrangement funded by employers, under which employees who suffer work-related injuries or occupational illnesses receive benefits while out of work or while limited in their ability to work. Death benefits are provided to dependents of employees who are killed. The statutes also typically provide for payment of medical expenses, funeral benefits, and vocational rehabilitation.
The excess of current assets over current liabilities.
The taking over of a mortgage loan in default, even though the loan may say it cannot be assumed. The purpose is to avoid foreclosure, and the workout may include some forgiveness of unpaid interest.
World Wide Web
A popular method of accessing information on the Internet.
A financing arrangement in which a buyer of property makes one monthly payment to the seller that includes money the seller will pay to the holder of an older, smaller mortgage on the property.
writ of execution
Court order authorizing an official to evict a tenant or sell real property.
writ of restitution
The writ entitles the landlord to use a law enforcement officer to remove the tenant from the premises if the tenant does not leave voluntarily.
A lender agreeing to take less than the full debt as payment in full.
written description requirement
A statute requirement that your patent application be detailed enough to show that you were in possession of your invention.
Written agreement between people commonly found in litigation.
wrongful death action
A type of tort action that is brought wherein the injured party has died as a result of the fault of the defendant.
See abusive discharge.
wrongfully withheld deposits
These are funds that are kept by the landlord without cause.
Signature made by a person who is unable to sign his or her name. (This type of signature is only legally valid when witnessed by another person.)
zero down mortgages
Also called 100% loans. A mortgage that requires no down payment.
zero lot line
Positioning of a structure on a lot so that one side rests directly on the lot's boundary line.
Governmental regulations controlling the use of land.
Governmental body charged with the responsibility of enforcing or modifying zoning restrictions.
Laws governing the use of real property.
An early embryo.
zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
A process where eggs are inseminated, then placed in the fallopian tubes.
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